Rural water supplies in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those relying on handpumps, often demonstrate low levels of sustainability. This book is designed to assist those responsible for planning, implementing and supporting rural water supply programmes to increase sustainability. Its primary aims are to raise awareness of issues that affect sustainability and the interrelationship between them, provide options for addressing these using examples, and describe how these options can be implemented. The importance of a programmatic approach to the delivery of rural water services is emphasized, as is the need for ongoing institutional support for community management and consideration of alternative management models. The book does not prescribe a 'one size fits all' solution but encourages a flexible, holistic approach to decision-making to achieve sustainable outcomes. | »
The history and development of the Zimbabwe Bush Pump is well recorded in numerous documents (see aquamor.info). It has been the Standard National Hand Pump option for the country since 1933 and has passed through a number of technical developments since that time.
Currently over half the estimated 50 000+ Bush Pumps placed in the rural areas within Zimbabwe are out of action. This is a combination of technical, economic and other problems faced by the country at this time. This report attempts to make suggestion which address the technical problems. Most of these technical problems are found in “down-the-hole" equipment of the pump. Standard down-the-hole equipment includes 50mm GI pipe as the rising main, a 600mm long 75mm brass cylinder with matching piston equipped with two leather seals, a heavy duty brass foot valve and mild steel 16mm pump rods.
This report discusses small modifications of current standard down-the-hole equipment, namely 50mm GI rising main, 75mm cylinder and heavy duty foot valve and 16mm steel pump rods. Minor refinements are made to the design or method of installation which have the potential to overcome many of the “down-the-hole” problems. The use of GI pipe has been retained partly because there is no other rising main option available which can cope with the wide range of depths which the Bush Pump operates in (3m to 100m). It is known that aggressive ground water occurs in some parts of Zimbabwe, and this can cause problems with corrosion in both the rising main and rods. But overall the problem of corrosion is not so large as to require a major shift away from the standard equipment. | »
Publication available in English and French - publication disponible en anglais et en français
In Burkina Faso, concerns have been raised regarding the high number of handpump boreholes that have failed, or need to be rehabilitated within a relatively short time of their initial construction. Despite knowledge of handpump corrosion for over 30 years, it remains a problem in Burkina Faso, as governments and aid agencies have continued to install pumps manufactured with unsuitable materials, leading to high maintenance costs, pump failure and rejection of water sources due to poor water quality. Handpump corrosion is a major global problem which the WASH sector has so far, systemically failed to address, and which will impede the realisation of Sustainable Development Goal 6, not only in Burkina Faso.
Consistently assuring the quality of the India II and III, and Afridev handpumps is not just a challenge for Burkina Faso but more widely. Addressing this failure requires needs solutions from within importing countries, such as Burkina Faso, but also internationally. It is hoped that this short study will trigger interest by governments, and by research organisations, and international development agencies to explore ways to solve the problems of corrosion and poor quality handpump components.
Au Burkina Faso, le nombre élevé de forages équipés d’une pompe à motricité humaine (PMH) qui dysfonctionnent ou qui nécessitent de grosses réparations quelques années seulement après leur construction est alarmant. La corrosion des PMH est un phénomène connu depuis plus de 30 ans ; elle demeure pourtant un problème majeur au Burkina Faso car les gouvernements successifs et les agences d’aide au développement ont continué d’installer des pompes fabriquées à partir de matériaux inadaptés. Ces pratiques ont généré des coûts d’entretien élevés, de multiples pannes et le rejet de nombreux points d’eau par les communautés car l’eau y était de mauvaise qualité. La corrosion des PMH est un problème mondial majeur, dont le secteur EAH ne s’est jusqu’à présent toujours pas saisi à sa juste mesure, et qui risque d’empêcher la réalisation de l’Objectif du Développement Durable n°6 au Burkina Faso comme dans d’autres pays.
S’assurer en permanence de la qualité des PMH India II et III et Afridev est un défi pour le Burkina Faso mais aussi pour d’autres pays. Afin de rectifier cette situation, il est nécessaire de trouver des solutions à la fois au sein des pays d’importation, comme le Burkina Faso, et au niveau international.
Nous espérons que cette courte étude attirera l’attention des gouvernements, des organismes de recherche et des agences internationales d’aide au développement et les incitera à travailler sur la résolution des problèmes pressants que sont la corrosion et la mauvaise qualité des pièces composantes des PMH. Si rien n’est fait la communauté mondiale de l’approvisionnement en eau, par négligence ou désintérêt, prive de fait les populations rurales du Burkina Faso et d’ailleurs des bénéfices d’un approvisionnement en eau élémentaire et fiable. | »
SDG Target 6.1 strives to ensure universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Although the number of people with access to improved drinking water supplies increased over the last three decades, the gap between rural and urban areas is staggering. In sub-Saharan Africa 12% of rural compared to 50% urban populations respectively use a safely managed service. This stark difference has reasons. Expenditure on large-scale piped water supplies in urban areas has been much higher than on the small-scale, decentralised systems and point sources that serve rural populations. The investment bias for infrastructure is mirrored in inadequate investments in the human and institutional capacity to plan, develop, manage and regulate rural water service provision.
The last mile in meeting SDG target 6.1 is in rural areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Groundwater plays a crucial role, with aquifers almost ubiquitous, and able to provide a buffer during drought periods. There are numerous initiatives to provide rural populations with access to groundwater. Nevertheless, if supplies are to meet SDG target 6.1 criteria for safely managed services, groundwater management policies and practices need to be improved significantly. This requires much more investment alongside major political commitment.
Key Note & Presentations:
• Progress on SDG6.1 in Rural Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa
• Burundi – The challenge of water availability
• Professional Groundwater Development means more than building infrastructure
• PUMPING AND DELIVERING GROUNDWATER TO LAST MILE POPULATIONS | »
This publication outlines new experiments on the Zimbabwe Bush Pumps, specifically the use of PVC rising mains with “bottom support” using a 75mm PVC rising main and a 63.5mm open top cylinder in order to facilitate maintenance | »