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Republic of Zambia


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Geology and Hydrogeology

The geology of Zambia, comprises various rock formations consisting of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from Precambrian to recent times. In Zambia, aquifers can be broadly categorised into three groups:

  • Aquifers where Groundwater flow is mainly in fissures, channels and discontinuities, which are subdivided into highly productive and locally productive aquifers;
  • Aquifers where intergranular groundwater flow is dominant
  • Low yielding aquifers with limited potential:

The price of a completed borehole in Zambia tends to be in the range of $4,000 to $5,000 although it can be double this for some donor-aided projects.

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Related Resources

Regulating Rural Water Supply Services A comparative review of existing and emerging approaches with a focus on GIZ partner countries

This study responds to calls within GIZ to extend its considerable expertise in pro-poor regulation, which to date has largely centred on improving access to water services in urban low-income areas. Rights-based global commitments to addressing the persistent access gap between urban and rural areas have prompted a fresh look at the potential role of regulation. Guided by a review of the literature and expert insights, this study examines eight country case studies to explore the question of regulatory oversight for rural water supply services in the context of widely pledged universal service aspirations. Regulation is deliberately interpreted as a set of functions and competencies and a dynamic process involving providers and consumers as active participants. | »

The SOMAP Experience, Zambia A study of the how sustainable a national rural water supply programme turned out, in Chongwe District, Zambia

SOMAP is the acronym for Sustainable Operation and Maintenance Project for rural water supply in Zambia and it is the strategy that the Government of the Republic of Zambia has adopted to sustain rural water supply. The SOMAP model was first successfully piloted in six rural towns for five years before rolling out nationwide in 2012.

This brief study report is adopted from the dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Project Management from the University of Lusaka. The research was a self-financed academic project to explore the effectiveness of the strategy adopted by the Government of the Republic of Zambia to sustain rural water sources of boreholes fitted with hand-pumps, using a case of Chongwe District. Convenient sampling technique was used to sample 47 water points at villages, schools and rural health centres for the study in the rural part of Chongwe district. | »

SADC-GMI Short Course 1: Drilling Supervision (2018) 23 – 27 April 2018, Institute for Groundwater Studies, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

The Drilling Supervision short course was conducted to participants from Southern African Development Community (SADC) member states. The training was conducted as part of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) for professionals in the groundwater industry. In the modern professional ethics, the groundwater work falls under the hydrogeology/geohydrology profession. However in most of the developing countries, the hydrogeology or geohydrology professional is just starting to evolve and there is therefore limited number of specialized hydrogeologist/geohydrologist experts, thus the training did not exclude all other professionals who are involved at various levels in groundwater.

The course covered: Geology and Groundwater Occurrence; Understanding Basic Aspects of Groundwater; Principles of Borehole Supervision; On-site Supervision; Drilling Preparation; Drilling; Borehole Development and Completion; Field demonstration of pumping test; and Borehole profiling and collection of groundwater samples | »

Implementation Plan For Self Supply Piloting In Luapula Province

Zambia, despite a total rural population of almost 8 million, has a low density rural population in many areas (around 14/km2) whose dispersed nature makes it difficult to serve sufficient people for handpump sustainability. At the same time much of the North of the country has plentiful groundwater reserves at shallow depth, allowing easy well construction. As a result, country-wide over 40% of protected supplies are lined shallow wells and only 13% are boreholes. Some 30% of handpumps 40% of households, (more in North-western, Western, Northern and Luapula Provinces) have dug their own (unlined) wells and increasing numbers are doing so every year. The ease of making such alternative supplies, and the low coverage by conventional communal supplies means that many are much nearer to a traditional source than a protected one, and even in communities which are theoretically ‘covered’ preference for the convenience, taste of water from traditional sources may lead to their continued use .

RWSN commissioned a study in 2006 to re-assess the situation for implementing self-supply in Zambia and this also helped to re-kindle interest. This report is the next step in response to a request from UNICEF and RWSSU, proposing an implementation plan, particularly for Luapula, but also drawing attention to the potential in Northern and Western provinces. | »

The 2019 RWSN directory of rural water supply services, tariffs, management models and lifecycle costs 2019 Edition [ENGLISH]

The rural water supply sector is undergoing a period of change. In response to the challenges of achieving universal access to safe, affordable drinking water and sustaining those services, there has been increasing innovation in different types of rural water service models.

This Directory is intended to show the growing range of management options. Some are novel interventions that are still being piloted, others have been established for a decade or more.

Also includes: Handpump Statistics 2019 (from WPDx data from Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific)

Aussi disponible en français

NEW: this Directory is currently being updated. Please refer to the information below to contribute. | »

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