RWSN Resources

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Proceedings of the 7th RWSN Forum 29 Nov - 2 Dec 2016, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

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Author: FUREY, S. G. (editor)
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

The 2016 Rural Water Supply Network Forum in Abidjan was the first global gathering to consider the practical challenge of how everyone worldwide can get access to safe, affordable water by 2030. It was also the first RWSN Forum to take place in a francophone country, in the 25 years since the creation of the network.
The Forum gathered 467 rural water sector practitioners from over 300 organisations from 64 countries in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe, in a bilingual (English/French) four day event. It was opened by the Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, Mr Daniel Kaplan Duncan. We were joined by HE State Minster James Dengchol Tot, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia, as well as a delegation from AMCOW.

This Forum proceedings compiles all peer-reviewed materials. Separate downloads and links to the films can be found at: https://rwsn7.net/content/

Harnessing water point data to improve drinking water services

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Author: Dickinson, N., Knipschild, F., Magara, P. & G. Kwizera
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: WASHNote/IRC Uganda
Institution: Water and Development Alliance (WADA)

This document introduces what water point data are, why they are collected, and how they are used in “The Value of Water Point Data”. The chapter “A Deep Dive: The Case of Uganda” illustrates the use and progressive improvement of water point data in a country that is actively updating and publishing its National Water Atlas.

“From Water Point Data to Improved Water Services” provides an overview of how water point data can be used more effectively to measure services and water resources, strengthen the enabling environment, and improve coordination. It also reviews some innovative approaches under development, such as the remote monitoring of water points. Finally, “Recommendations” provides actionable guidance to a) national governments, b) local governments, c) NGOs and implementers, and d) donors and investors.

Rural Water Supply Network - Annual Report 2015 Enabling practitioners, professionals and ultimately water users to make informed decisions on how to improve and maintain access to safe water in rural areas.

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

Firstly, we would like to thank the numerous RWSN members who have contributed to the lively discussions that took place throughout 2015 on our Dgroups, LinkedIn and webinar platforms. We also thank those who share their ideas and opinions more privately with the secretariat and theme leaders.

The RWSN Secretariat and theme leaders were able to undertake their work thanks to the financial and in-kind support from: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Department for International Development (DFID), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) – through the UPGro programme, IRC, National Ground Water Association, Oxford University – through the REACH programme, RAIN Foundation, Skat Consulting Ltd., SKH, UNICEF, Volkart Stiftung, WaterAid, World Bank, World Vision, and ZH2O. Thank you very much for your involvement and on-going support for the work of the network.

Review of Self-financed Water Supply in Milenge district, Zambia Country Report Zambia

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Author: Olschewski A., Sutton S., Ngoma M.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: UNICEF

According to the UN Human rights to water and sanitation note (2015) there are three major management models for water supply, one of which is the “individual on-site solution” known as Self-supply. Self-supply is defined as incremental investments to improve access to water and quality of water financed by household investment. This report aims to present ‘adequate strong evidence to support or negate Self-supply acceleration as a service delivery model’ in Zambia. It is based on a review study of piloting of self-financed traditional well improvement in Milenge District, Luapula Province, one of the two poorest districts in the poorest province in Zambia. During the piloting also specific support services were provided such as facilitation of a loan scheme and training of local masons to iprove Self-supply so that there was supported Self-supply as service delivery model.

The study included extensive dry season surveys of waterpoints (200), households (150) and interviews with stakeholders at all levels, undertaken between June and August 2015.

Review of Upgraded Family Well Programme in Makoni & Buhera districts, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe Country Report Zimbabwe

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Author: Olschewski A., Matimati R., Waterkeyn A.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: UNICEF

This report aims to present the impact of a programme for the upgrading of traditional wells in rural Zimbabwe. The study focuses on two districts in Manicaland province, Makoni and Buhera, where self-financed improvements through the UFW programme were supported some 20 years ago. The study included extensive dry-season surveys of water-points, interviews with households and with stakeholders at all levels that were conducted between September and October 2015. Water quality samples were taken both from sources (from 50 community water points, from 50 traditional wells and from 100 upgraded family wells) and at point-of-use (200 samples).

Procurement, Costing & Pricing and Contract Management of Borehole Construction - Zambia Short Course Report Striving for Professionalism in Cost Effective Boreholes in Zambia

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Author: ADEKILE, D and DANERT, K
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

The Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) Zambia and the Water and Resources Management Authority (WARMA) weresupported by the cooperation of UNICEF and Skat Foundation to strengthen capacity in the country with respect to siting, drilling, supervision, procurement and contract management. The support included the delivery of a five-day short course to 38 participants in Zambia on drilling procurement, costing & pricing and contract management. This report presents the proceedings and outcomes of the course.

Effective Joint Sector Reviews for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) A Study and Guidance - 2016

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Author: DANERT, K, FUREY, S, MECHTA, M and GUPTA, S
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: World Bank
Institution: World Bank

This is the first consolidated and referenced multicountry study of Water or Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Joint Sector Reviews (JSRs). The study report and associated Learning Note and Poster provide an understanding of JSR processes and practical guidance on how to introduce and improve them. The study sets out a methodology in the form of visual checklists to reflect and take stock of WASH JSR processes. This could also form the foundation for subsequent cross-country comparisons of the JSR process.

The publications provide an analysis of JSRs as well as practical guidance on how to introduce and effectively manage them. The initial focus of the work was on JSRs in fragile states. However, the contested definitions of a fragile state, arbitrary thresholds as well as the realization that there are common issues with respect to JSRs in nonfragile countries led to a widening of the scope of countries studied. Notably, all countries included are considerably donor dependant for WASH. The study considered 25 countries, and found that between 2001 and 2015, WASH JSRs had taken place in 19 of them.

Note that these documents are review copies.

Rainwater Harvesting in Thailand: Learning from the World Champions RWSN Field Note 2016-1

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Author: Matthias Saladin
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This field note provides an overview and analysis of the historic developments of promoting Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) in Thailand between 1980 and 2015. Based on literature reviews and interviews with stakeholders a series of factors were identified which made the promotion of DRWH in Thailand an exceptionally successful example of diffusion of innovations. Among the key factors identified were policies, market structure, pre-existing habits, affordability, supply chain and climate. No single factor was decisive but several of them occurring simultaneously made it possible for an enabling environment to form and make the initiative flourish even after government funding ran out (most of the Thai Jars, which are most commonly used for rainwater storage, were actually delivered through the private sector and paid by the consumers).
In spite of its large-scale success, the Thai Jar Experience is not a blueprint for replication elsewhere but points out to the importance of cultural and economic aspects, as well as to an enabling environment in general.

Revues Sectorielles Conjointes sur l'eau, l'assainissement et l'hygiène (WASH) PRATIQUE D'USAGE DE LA BANQUE MONDIALE EN FAVEUR DE L'EAU: NOTE D'APPRENTISSAGE

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Author: DANERT, K, FUREY, S, MECHTA, M and GUPTA
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: WSP

L'amélioration de l'eau, l'assainissement et l'hygiène (WASH) dans les États à revenu faible ou intermédiaire, plus particulièrement les États fragiles, ou ceux qui souffrent de crises prolongées, est grand défi.
Au cours de la dernière décennie,les revues sectorielles conjointes (JSR) ont émergé comme un moyen de coordination des parties prenantes,d'apprentissage commun,de collecte de données, de prise de décision et de construction de consensus, de partenariats et de mandats d'action. Les JSR offrent une opportunité de renforcement de la gouvernance et d'augmentation d'impact.
Dans les pays où plusieurs bailleurs de fonds financent la WASH et ne fournissent pas un appui budgétaire général, les JSR sont l'un des rares mécanismes pouvant susciter la responsabilité mutuelle au niveau des pays

HOW TO ESTABLISH A FULL COST RECOVERY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ? WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS FOR SUCCESS AND REPLICATION ? SDC Briefing Note

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Author: ISW/SDC
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA)
Institution:

This Briefing Note outlines the results from more than 15 years of experience in both Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the International Secretariat for Water (ISW) funded by the Swiss Agency for Development & Cooperation (SDC).
The note outlines the ways in which cost recovery has been been acheived and social tariffs set locally. However when it comes to scaling up there are certainly many hindering factors, not the least being the centralised structure of the States apparatus and deciding power.
It is essential to overcome political tariff challenges as there is resistance that can emerge from a heavy centralised past and the belief that at local level things cannot work properly without keeping them under central control.

An Evaluation of the BluePump in Kenya and Gambia

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Author: Foster, T. & McSorely, B.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: University of Technology Sydney & Oxfam
Institution: Institute for Sustainable Futures

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Fairwater BluePump, an emerging rural water supply technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Claims about the BluePump’s durability and minimal maintenance requirements have provoked significant interest within the rural water sector. This evaluation set out to assess the suitability of the BluePump as a rural water supply technology, taking into account its operational performance, the experiences of water users, the views of local stakeholders, and the broader contextual factors that impinge upon its sustainability.

Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services Partnering with the Private Sector

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Author: Menzies I.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: WSP
Institution: The World Bank

The objective of this Guidance Note is to offer practical, experience-based guidance to those considering or currently
engaging in PPP in the water sector, and to provide a basic understanding of water PPPs and the PPP cycle to better
inform dialogue with governments that are considering PPP arrangements.

It builds on the experience of WSP in supporting PPP reforms in developing countries, especially through the domestic private sector. Key stakeholders in this dialogue include government at all levels, service providers, policy makers, customers, civil society, and professionals.

Many water PPP engagements in developing countries are more domestically oriented and at a smaller scale than international transactions. This Note outlines a rationale and approach for launching a water sector PPP so that government leaders and private sector providers can have informed discussions about the path forward should they choose to explore this approach in their countries.

UPGro abstracts from 41st IAH Congress, Sep 2014

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Author: Various
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher:
Institution: IAH/UPGro

The abstracts below were submitted and presented at the 41st Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists in Marrakech (15-19 Sep). They draw on work funded through the UPGro programme.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

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Author: DANERT K.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells.

UPGro Catalyst projects A synthesis and individual project activities and results

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Author: UPGro
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

This report summarises the contribution to groundwater knowledge of the 15 catalyst projects funded through the UPGro programme between 2013 and 2014, plus the The Africa Groundwater Atlas and Literature Archive.
The projects worked in 12 individual countries (see next page - some countries had more than one project), and three had an Africa-wide focus or component.
At the time of writing two of the 15 projects are still running (Velasquez-Orta and Colombo). The Groundwater Atlas project will also continue as a major archive of African groundwater information.

Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) 2012 to 2014 Three-Year Report

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Author: Furey, S. & Danert, K.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

Founded as the Handpump Technology Network (HTN) in 1992, RWSN has grown from a small group of technical experts focusing on handpumps. Today, RWSN is a vibrant network of 6,000 individuals from over 1,300 organisations in more than 140 countries. The network is governed and managed by representatives from the African Development Bank (AfDB), IRC, Skat Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), WaterAid and the World Bank. RWSN recognises the rights and the natural justice of all citizens to enjoy secure water services, regardless of location, lifestyle, gender, age, disability, ethnicity or income. Most of RWSN’s members are actively involved in improving rural water supplies, and every member can contribute to the network in one way or another.

Short report on Self-supply Seminar at the “My Water-my business” event 20th March 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Author: OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

In the Growth & Transformation Plan of Ethiopia specific sector targets are defined for improving access and services for WASH. A comprehensive implementation framework has been developed and endorsed, the One WASH National program, which guides all actors of the Ethiopian WASH sector in their collective efforts for implementation of WASH related activities towards the defined targets. Within the One WASH National program Self-supply is listed as an option additional to communal water supply to provide access to water for households or group of households.

This input paper summarizes some reflections from selected inputs provided at the seminar on 20th March on Self-supply and its acceleration.

Framework & Handbook for the Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Services, Northern Bahr El Ghazal, South Sudan A Politically Enabled Public Private Partnership

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Author: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan
Institution: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan

The “Northern Bahr el Ghazal Framework and Handbook for Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supplies” sets out how to ensure that rural and urban dwellers benefit from affordable drinking water ser-vices that are effectively managed, protected and maintained. The Framework and Handbook sets out common procedures and provides practical guidance for the planning & implementation of water supply improvements in Northern Bahr el Ghazal (NBeG) state. These proce-dures are to be adhered to by all government and non-government agencies striving to increase or sustain drinking water supply services in NBeG state through boreholes fitted with handpumps.

The Technology Applicability Framework. A Participatory Tool to Validate Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Technologies for Low-Income Urban Areas in S. Hostettler et al. (eds.), Technologies for Development,

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Author: Olschewski, A. and V. Casey
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Institution:

Decision-makers as well as practitioners in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector are facing serious challenges to keep existing WASH infrastructure in operation or to ensure provision of lasting and adequate WASH services. In many countries there are no tested procedures for assessing sustainability and scalability of new or existing technologies for providing adequate and lasting WASH services in a specific context.

The TAF was field tested on 13 WASH technologies in three countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Uganda. This paper presents the findings from the testing of the TAF and highlights potentials and limits of its applicability
for assessing the sustainable application and scalability of WASH technologies.
Relevant documents on the methodology, the testing as well as case studies and manuals are accessible in the public domain through www.washtechnologies.net.

Long-term Functionality of Rural Water Services in Developing Countries: A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding the Dynamic Interaction of Factors Summary of academic paper

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Author: Walters, J. P. and A. M. Javernick-Will
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: University of Colorado
Institution:

Research has shown that sustainability of rural water infrastructure in developing countries is largely affected by the dynamic and systemic interactions of technical, social, financial, institutional, and environmental factors that can lead to premature water system failure. This research employs system dynamics modeling, which uses feedback mechanisms to understand how these factors interact dynamically to influence long-term rural water system functionality (i.e., sustainability). To do this, the research first identified and aggregated key factors from literature, then asked water sector experts to indicate the polarity and strength between factors through Delphi and cross impact survey questionnaires, and finally used system dynamics modeling to identify and prioritize feedback mechanisms.

This is a 1 page summary of: Long-Term Functionality of Rural Water Services in Developing Countries: A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding the Dynamic Interaction of Factors, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49 (8), pp 5035–5043

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