RWSN Themes

Sustainable Groundwater Development for Rural Water Supplies

Groundwater is playing an ever important role for drinking water supplies, particularly in rural areas. In many countries, there has been a switch from using unprotected surface water to protected groundwater. Groundwater is fairly ubiquitous, but its conditions vary enormously and exploitation is often undertaken with limited understanding of hydrogeology and without sufficient evaluation of the resource, especially in developing counties. The days when pumps could be installed without considering the groundwater resource are over. Groundwater scarcity and pollution are becoming a major concern in some places. There are regions where groundwater quality is not fit for human consumption due to a high level of arsenic, fluoride, iron or nitrates and there is need for professionalism and vigilance to ensure that infrastructure is built to last, and that borehole provision is cost-effective. Basically, without proper drilling supervision, and quality pumps, universal access to a safe drinking water supply will never be met. RWSN’s Sustainable Groundwater Development theme sets out to ensure that goundwater resources are properly considered and sustainably used for developing drinking water supply sources.

Topics

Guidance

Code of practice and associated guidelines (RWSN)

English
Code of Practice for Cost-Effective Boreholes
Siting of Drilled Water Wells - A Guide for Project Managers
Procurement and Contract Management of Drilled Well Construction - A Guide for Supervisors and Project Managers
Supervising Water Well Drilling A guide for supervisors
Costing and Pricing - A Guide for Water Well Drilling Enterprises
Sustainable Groundwater Development: use, protect and enhance
Français
Code de bonnes pratiques pour la réalisation de forages
Implantation des forages - Guide à l’intention des chefs de projet
Passation de marchés et gestion des contrats de construction de forages - Guide à l’intention des superviseurs et chefs de projet
Supervision des forages d’eau potable Guide à l’intention des superviseurs
Analyse des coûts et détermination des prix Guide à l’intention des entreprises de forage d’eau
Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine: utilisation, protection, amélioration
Português
Procurement & Gestão de Contratos de Construção de Furos de Água:  Um Guião para Fiscais e Gestores de Projectos
Fiscalização de Furos de Água: Um guião para Fiscais
Cálculo de Custos e Preço: Guião para Empresas de Furos de Água

Manual Drilling Toolkit (UNICEF/Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA)

Toolkit for the Profesionalization of Manual Drilling in Africa

Handpump Standards (RWSN)

International standards for the public domain handpumps

Learning materials

Webinar recordings (2015)

English

Français

Manual Drilling – a global perspective of local realities

Le forage manuel - points de vue internationaux sur les réalités locales

Groundwater Resources and Supplies in Africa

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Groundwater Governance

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Effective procurement and contract management

Renforcer l'efficacité des processus de passation de marchés et de gestion des contrats

Drilling supervision is no longer in fashion – the funders save; the users pay

La supervision des forages est passée de mode - les bailleurs de fonds économisent; les usagers en paient le prix

Webinar recordings (2014)

E-discussion summaries

RWSN Publications

Drilling Professionalisation

Countries

Get Involved

Links & Resources

History

The Sustainable Groundwater Development theme has the longest history in RWSN, building on:


Related Resources

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved. | more information »

UPGro Consortium Kick-off meeting presentations

London, 22 April 2015

The second phase of the 'Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor' (UPGro) was launched in London on 22 April 2015. These are the powerpoint presentations from the day. | more information »

- Atelier Final, Dakar, Senegal, 8 Avrill 2015: Utilisation de la télédétection et de la modélisation du terrain pour l'identification des zones favorables aux forages manuels

- Final Workshop, Dakar, 8 April 2015: Remote sensing and terrain modelling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa

This set of presentation was given at the closing workshop in Dakar, 8 April 2015 of the UPGro Catalyst project : "Use of remote sensing and terrain modelling to map manual drilling potential in Senegal and Guinea" | more information »

Water Source Protection

Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects. | more information »

UPGro Catalyst projects

A synthesis and individual project activities and results

This report summarises the contribution to groundwater knowledge of the 15 catalyst projects funded through the UPGro programme between 2013 and 2014, plus the The Africa Groundwater Atlas and Literature Archive.
The projects worked in 12 individual countries (see next page - some countries had more than one project), and three had an Africa-wide focus or component.
At the time of writing two of the 15 projects are still running (Velasquez-Orta and Colombo). The Groundwater Atlas project will also continue as a major archive of African groundwater information. | more information »

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells. | more information »

A comparative study between “Rope pumps” and conventional piston pumps on water quality and other sustainability parameters

Appropriate technologies for rural water supply

In Tanzania there now are some 5000 Rope pumps both for small communities and Households. To compare Rope pumps with piston pumps like Afridev and Nira pumps regarding water quality, cost per capita and other aspects, the organisation ACRA effected a Comparative study. Some conclusions of the study are:
- Rural communities do not prefer piston pumps above Rope pump
-The water quality of tested Rope pumps is lower than Piston pumps but this is mainly due to bad installation. If installed right there is not much difference in water quality.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015

RWSN Publication 2015-2

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours! | more information »

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion

RWSN Publication 2015-1

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries). | more information »

RWSN Webinar Series - Early 2015

Groundwater, Self-supply and Equality

Presenters from more than 15 different organisations, working in over 15 countries share their practical experiences and research findings. Participants have the opportunity to ask questions, and meet others with similar interests at the events. Topic covered include:
- radio for rural water supplies, drawing on practical experiences from Kenya and Tanzania.
- Self-supply in emergency and development contexts, and we shall be hearing from Sierra Leone as well as Ethiopia, and on the costs and quality of self-supply as well as government roles.
- five webinars on groundwater.
- experiences about dealing with gender, violence and access to WASH.

All of the presentations and links to the recordings will be posted here within two to three days of each webinar. | more information »