Every year UNICEF WES projects are purchasing large numbers of handpumps. The promotion of low cost technologies by UNICEF has had a profound impact on the implementation of the projects. UNICEF has followed the policy to standardize the types of pumps used. ln some countries that achieved total self-sufficiency in production of handpumps the standardization policy has been acclaimed as the reason for the success. Recently standardization has been criticized for restricting free market forces and suppressing the development of local private industries in smaller countries.
The scope of this study was to collect data on handpump performance in several countries in West Africa. UNICEF WES projects vary in design and execution from country to country.
Projects in Mali or Burkina Faso operate in a completely different environment then in Nigeria.
Accordingly the findings and the recommendations contrast for each country. lt is however also possible to find common denominators about the factors that influence the performance of the pumps. These collective aspects should be considered for the formulation of future strategies. | »
UNICEF and later Save the Children USA initiated the introduction of the PlayPump in Mozambique. The pump is designed to be mainly used by school children. The turning wheel is connected to a pumping mechanism, which enables to pump water into an overhead tank.
Till date, about 100 PlayPumps have been installed in various schools and communities in the Maputo and Gaza Province in Mozambique. Skat was asked to undertake a technical and social evaluation of the PlayPumps together with CFPAS and to provide an independent study on the technology.
The concept of using children's excess energy while playing for pumping water sounds very attractive. The concept appears to be a very appealing technical option for water supplies used in school sanitation.
However, it is not clear whether the energy is actually enough to make sure that the water pump constantly. The children who play with the pump need to maintain a power input for water pumping from the given depth to the overhead tank and in addition initially need to exceed the power input to turn the pump and create the inertia as the pump acts as a flywheel.
Therefore an in-depth study of its technical performance and the social acceptability was carried out, as well as a comprehensive financial analysis (initial investment and O&M cost), which is needed to review the financial feasibility of the pump. | »
ln October 2006, RWSN conducted an Evaluation Mission of the Deep-well Handpumps installed in the PDARI Project in Maxixe.
ln a following meeting at the RWSN Forum in Ghana (December 2006) DPOPH-|, PDARI, Meera & Ceiko (handpump manufacturer) and SKAT discussed the problems faced during the evaluation mission and solutions were sought to solvqthese problems. At the end of the meeting it was decided to use a smaller riser pipe (@aB mm) and use instead of stainless steel pumprods the lightweight FRP rods. These changes would bring a considerable improvement in a reduction of the pumping effort and possibly ease the installation procedures.
To install this pump configuration correctly, an installation training by SKAT - RWSN should take place as soon as the specific material would have been delivered. | »
In Angola, many types of handpumps are used in the Rural Water Supply Programme. Large percentage of handpumps remains unfunctional due to various factors including poor maintenance. With a view to improve sustainability, the National Directorate of Water (DNA) and OXFAM requested technical assistance on handpump related issues including standardization, O&M, procurement, quality control and local production of handpumps.
Responding to the request from DNA and OXFAM, the Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT) agreed to provide the support under the HTN Africa Initiative. The HTN Mission comprising Arun Kumar Mudgal, Consultant, SKAT visited Angola from 06-20 September 2001.
The HTN Mission visited handpumps in three provinces and held discussion with DNA, DPAs in three provinces, UNICEF, OXFAM and other sector partners including the private sector. The following describes the main findings and recommendations. | »
Having made a significant impact on the promotion of water supply technologies in Asia, HTN is now shifting its focus to Africa, one of the most deficient regions of the world in terms of safe water. To maximize the impact of its inputs, the Project will work in close collaboration with HTN partners (governments, NGOs, donors and the private sector).
Two or three sector professionals will be recruited and strategically located by mid 2002. In the intervening period, it is proposed to provide additional support to Africa through the HTN Secretariat under the present UNICEF SSA contract no. S&P/2001/0018. This final report gives an account of progress made so far and expenditure incurred. | »