RWSN Resources

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Author Year Downloads Title

Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation Guidelines for

Downloads: 66

Author: Lawrence, A., Macdonald, D., Howard, A., Barrett, M., Pedley, S., Ahmed, K., Nalubega, M.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: British Geological Survey 2001

There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still remains without access to safe water and sanitation, and many of these can only be served by groundwater. The need for renewed efforts to improve the situation is recognised in DFID's recently published water strategy paper - ''Addressing the Water Crisis - Healthier and More Productive Lives for Poor People''.

These guidelines are an important contribution to risk assessment and the avoidance of the contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation. They have been development as part of a project funded by DFID through the water component of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division's Knowledge and Research Programme.

Draft Review of the Household Arsenic Removal Technology Options

Downloads: 46

Author: MUDGAL, A. K.
Year of Publishing: 2002
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Handpump Technology Network

Arsenic is widely distributed element in the earth’s crust and ranks twentieth in elemental presence. As a Group V element, arsenic exhibits a broad range of chemical reactivity and it is commercially used in alloys with lead. Arsenic in natural water has been reported from several countries including Bangladesh, China, Chile, Ghana, India, Nepal, Rumania, Taiwan, USA and Vietnam. In India, arsenic pollution is mostly of geological origin. However, ground water pollution of anthropogenic origin - due to industrial or mining waste - has been reported from Chennai in Tamil Nadu and Rajnandgaon in Madhya Pradesh.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Drilling Boreholes for Handpumps Working Paper 2 on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Downloads: 390

Author: WURZEL, P.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat
Institution: RWSN

This booklet seeks to suggest ways in which funds can be better used for making safe water available to the poor by illustrating how drilling costs can be reduced without compromising water quality, water quantity, or the productive life of the borehole. These arguments are directed towards the rural water supply sector as a whole. Those directly addressed are primarily decision makers, government civil servants, planners and implementers of water projects who are not experts in drilling, as well as technical people, project leaders, technical aid personnel etc. This publication is neither a detailed drilling manual nor a methodology of drilling methods.

The author draws on his extensive experience as a member of the UNICEF Water and Environmental Sanitation community. He hopes that his views and proposals will be a catalyst for change, and that this contribution will stimulate interest in experimenting with ideas on low cost drilling of boreholes for handpumps.

Hand Drilling Directory Cost Effective Boreholes

Downloads: 725

Author: DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: UNICEF, WSP, SDC, Aqua For All

This document provides a short summary of each of the hand drilling techniques being utilised today; a county-by-country overview of the extent of hand drilling taking place in select countries; an annotated list of organisations involved in promoting and supporting hand drilling and an extensive list of literature, from published articles to training materials and on-line videos.

Hand Sludging - A Report From North West Bengal Report of DFID KAR Project R7126 “Private Sector Participation in Low Cost Water Well Drilling”,

Downloads: 51

Author: BALL, P. & DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 1999
Publisher: Cranfield University
Institution: Silsoe College

The Low Cost Drilling Project (Cranfield University/DFID/Government of Uganda) is developing a modification of the traditional Asian sludging technology for use in Africa.
As part of the technology research a visit was made to north India to observe and measure various characteristics of this well drilling technique. The report describes these observations and draws conclusions for the Low Cost Well Drilling Project.
The method and equipment used by the Indian drillers (“mistries”) are set out, followed by an outline of the ergonomics and quantification of the work rates needed for hole cleaning and drilling. Drilling penetration rates in soft alluvium were observed to range from 16.5 to 45m per hour.
Traditional and more modern designs of casing and wellscreen, and the corresponding well completion methods, are described.
The cost of a 12m water well drilled by sludging in North West Bengal is estimated at Rs200 (approximately £3-4).
Practical conclusions are drawn in relation to equipment design for Uganda or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

Downloads: 681

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

How Three Handpumps Revolutionised Rural Water Supplies A brief history of the India Mark II/III, Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump

Downloads: 798

Author: BAUMANN, E. and S. G. FUREY
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

The India Mark II/III, the Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump are three of the most successful and widespread handpump designs in the world. Over the last quarter of a century, hundreds of thou-sands, if not millions, have been built and installed in wells and boreholes around the world.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

Downloads: 419

Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

India Handpump Revolution: Challenge and Change HTN Working Paper: WP 01/97

Downloads: 74

Author: MUDGAL, A. K.
Year of Publishing: 1997
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

This case study traces the development of handpumps in India, including a review of the systems developed to ensure consistent, high quality production of the India Mark II. It investigates the pressures that led to the introduction of a new variant of the India Mark II — the India Mark III — a handpump designed for easy maintenance and repair. It highlights the primary issues of concern in the field that led to formulation of the concept of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM).

India Mark II hand pumps with open top cylinders in low lift application Maintenance data analysis from 1986 till March, 1992

Downloads: 1

Author: KUMAR DAW, R.
Year of Publishing: 1992
Publisher: Danida Project Directorate

Phase 1 of the Orissa Drinking Water Supply project took place from August 1985 to December 1987 and resulted in the installation of about 1600 handpumps on tube wells. In Phase II of the project, 2000 handpumps were installed by August 1989 in 5 blocks and a further 600 pumps installed in another 4 blocks.

This paper confines itself to the analysis of the maintenance data of the 29 India Mark II pumps since their installations in 1986 and up to the 31st March 1992.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

International Conference on Manual Irrigation Proceedings HTN Working Paper: WP 01/96

Downloads: 45

Author: WISHART, G.
Year of Publishing: 1995
Publisher: RWSN (incl. HTN)
Institution: Skat

This document reports the proceedings of the International Conference on Manual Irrigation held September 4-8, 1995. The conference took place at the Toshali Sands Hotel in Puri, India and included field visits to manual irrigation sites in the state of Orissa.

Jibon Deepset Pump Specification (2")

Downloads: 99

Author: MUDGAL, A. K. and ERPF, K.
Year of Publishing: 2005
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

This specification is intended to assit all users of the JIBON Deepset Pump, but it is primarily aimed at purchasers, manufacturers and inspectors of JIBON Deepset Pump.
This specification contains a full product definition for the JIBON Deepset Handpump including:
- Manufacturing processes and inspection
- requirements for compliance with international standards
- assembly and part drawings including parts list

First Edition: 1999

Learning from UNICEF’s Experiences of Water Well Drilling Code of Practice for Cost-Effective Boreholes

Downloads: 194

Author: DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat/UNICEF

This paper reviews experiences from the history of UNICEF’s involvement in water well drilling and draws out lessons on how to improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Borehole provision. It has built on the work of numerous professionals within UNICEF, who have been committed to improving the cost-effectiveness of water well provision over the years. The author undertook interviews and held group discussions with over 70 stakeholders and reviewed numerous UNICEF reports as well as the Supply Division procurement database.

Low Cost Handpumps RWSN Field Note 2011-3

Downloads: 568

Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN

Groundwater supplies provide a significant proportion of rural dwellers in the developing world with access to a safe drinking water supply and will continue to do so in the near future. With the emergence of Self Supply and its increasing acceptance, low-cost handpumps have a role to play. Twenty five years ago the emphasis was on completely enclosed pumps (for drinking water only) to avoid the contamination of the well. Over the last 10 years, cheaper and simpler pump designs have become more acceptable. This development has been strongly influ-enced by the general recognition of the self-supply approach.

This guidance note points out the strengths and limitations of a number of low cost pumps. It provides an overview of the appli-cation, technical details, materials used, installation and mainte-nance, manufacturing requirements and costs of several low cost pumps, including information on the numbers installed and locations.

Performance of India Mark II solid link suction pumps in Danida assisted water supply project in coastal Orissa Project Report

Downloads: 25

Author: KUMAR DAW, R. and REDDY, L. V. R.
Year of Publishing: 1995
Publisher: Danida

This first India Mark II Solid Link Suction was installed by Danida assiated Drionking Water Supply Project in Coastal Orissa, India in December 1986. This report is a performance analysis of the India Mark II Solid Link Suction pumps at the closure of the Orissa Project in December 1994. While about 750 pump had been installed by September 1994, detailed maintenance history were available for 229 pumps, installed in 6 blocks of coastal Orissa. This data forms the basis of this report.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Performance of PVC riser pipes with India Mark II hand pumps Results from field trials February 1988 to March 1992

Downloads: 34

Author: KUMAR DAW, R.
Year of Publishing: 1992
Publisher: Danida Project Directorate

Phase I of the Danida assisted Rural Drinking Water Supply Project in coastal Orissa was implemented during August 1985 to March 1988. During this period approximately 1650 tube wells with handpumps were constructed in 3 blocks of the 20 blocks of the project area. By 1987, the functionality study and maintenance system indicated that pump were falling into disuse to deterioration of water quality in the wells. Offensive odour, unacceptable colour and taste were common features observed from these wells.

This report analyses the problem and put forwards practical recommendations.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Proceedings of the 7th RWSN Forum 29 Nov - 2 Dec 2016, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

Downloads: 57

Author: FUREY, S. G. (editor)
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

The 2016 Rural Water Supply Network Forum in Abidjan was the first global gathering to consider the practical challenge of how everyone worldwide can get access to safe, affordable water by 2030. It was also the first RWSN Forum to take place in a francophone country, in the 25 years since the creation of the network.
The Forum gathered 467 rural water sector practitioners from over 300 organisations from 64 countries in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe, in a bilingual (English/French) four day event. It was opened by the Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, Mr Daniel Kaplan Duncan. We were joined by HE State Minster James Dengchol Tot, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia, as well as a delegation from AMCOW.

This Forum proceedings compiles all peer-reviewed materials. Separate downloads and links to the films can be found at:

RWSN Handpump Survey 2013 Summary of Findings

Downloads: 747

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Rural Water Supply Network

Manual pumps have been used for centuries but this simple technology remains the mainstay of rural water supplies in many countries. The Handpump Technology Network (which later became RWSN) was set up in 1992 to promote collaboration and standardisation so that handpumps could provide more reliable and better quality rural water services.

This survey is aimed at practitioners in government, NGOs, private sector and development partners who are directly involved in rural water service implementation, or who are involved in the procurement of handpumps or spare parts (as either a buyer or seller).

Tara Handpump Specifications (First Edition)

Downloads: 285

Author: ERPF, K.
Year of Publishing: 2005
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

This RWSN specification contains a full product definition for the TARA Direct Action Handpump, including:
- manufacturing processes and inspection
- requirements for compliant with international standards
- assembly and part drawings
- part list

The specification results from work carried out by UNICEF in collaboration with Skat Consulting. The base for this specification are the standards from Bangladesh (TARA Handpump Production Manual, UNICEF-DPHE Bangladesh, 1995) and the standard of the Bureau of Indian Standards (IS 141106:1996)

The Tara Handpump: The Birth of a Star UNDP/World Bank Discussion Paper Series

Downloads: 58

Year of Publishing: 1989
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: Water and Sanitation Program

This is the story of the Tara handpump. The Tara (Bengali for "Star") is a low-lift direct action handpump developed in Bangladesh using concepts now proving to be suitable for community water supply applications in a number of other developing countries.

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