The risk of disasters is high throughout Central America. In Nicaragua, multiple natural hazards (earthquakes, tsunami, hurricanes, tropical storms, drought, landslides) combine with severe levels of socioeconomic
vulnerability, placing the country near the top of all international lists of countries with high disaster risk. Nicaragua is ranked 4th in the Climate risk index published by German watch in 2015.
Multiple global, national, and local factors augment the hazards faced by water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and increase their vulnerability. Intense tropical storms and hurricanes are affecting regularly the water systems infrastructure. More frequent and less predictable droughts and intense deforestation have deprived the Nicaraguan dry zone of the water needed for human consumption and agricultural production over prolonged periods.