Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) & Technology Introduction Process (TIP)


© 2018 - • -

Project starts: 2011
Project finished:
Collaborators & Partners: Skat Foundation, WaterAid, GIZ. The WASHTech consortium consisted of IRC WASH, WaterAid, Cranfield University, Skat Foundation, WSA, TREND, KNUST and NETWAS
Funder: Currently un-funded


The TAF is a tried-and-tested way of helping organisations improve their understanding of whether a technology that is designed to tackle a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) problem will work in a particular context. This improved understanding can be used to support decisions on:

1. Whether or not to invest or support the introduction of Technology X in Context Y
2. Whether or not to continue to invest, support or approve the introduction of Technology X in Context Y
3. Is Technology X ready to scale-up? And what are context-sensitive factors that may play a major role in the success or failure of widespread promotion and uptake?

Although the TAF was developed for WASH technologies, it can be used for any type of technology or product, and has been adapted by others for renewable energy technologies.

Project Description

The TAF is a 4-step process, which includes field work. All relevant actors should be involved in the field work and in the scoring workshop. There should be sufficient resources to do all four steps properly. It costs (in Sub-Saharan Africa) around US$ 2-3,000 per assessment of one technology per district and needs about 7- 8 working days’ time including upfront preparation.

TAF fieldwork typically takes 3 days:
Day 1: Introduction of the TAF process to stakeholders and agreeing objectives.
Day 2: Field work to visit technology and context being evaluated and verification of data
Day 3: in a workshop presenting data from field, Scoring of technology/service using the TAF and formulating recommendations for sustainability/scalability


The TAF has been applied in a wide range of settings for water, sanitation and energy technologies, from Nicaragua to Afghanistan to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

An updated version is in development and Skat Foundation is interested to hear from any organisations who have used the TAF and TIP.

More Information

» TAF / WASH Technologies website - new for 2018

» TAF and TIP manuals and templates

» WASHTech project reports - how the TAF and TIP were developed

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