RWSN Thèmes

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine

L’eau souterraine permet à un nombre significatif d’habitants en milieu rural d’avoir accès à une eau potable sûre, et cela va continuer à être le cas dans le future. L’eau souterraine est relativement omniprésente, mais ses caractéristiques varient énormément et son exploitation est souvent entreprise avec une compréhension limitée de l’hydrogéologie et sans une évaluation suffisante de la ressource. Dans certains endroits, une utilisation intensive de la ressource en eau souterraine pour l’agriculture a conduit à des prélèvements trop importants et a eu pour conséquence que cette dernière est devenue hors d’atteinte pour un usage domestique du fait que les niveaux des nappes ont baissé. Il y a également des régions où la qualité de l’eau souterraine n’est pas adaptée à une consommation humaine (par exemple à cause de concentrations élevées en arsenic, fluor, fer ou nitrate, ou du fait de la contamination liée à l’homme comme un assainissement faible ou un déversement accidentel de pétrole ou de produits chimiques).

L’objectif du thème « Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine » est le suivant : les ressources en eau souterraines sont bien prises en considération et utilisées de manière durable pour développer l’approvisionnement en eau potable ». Le thème a trois sous-thèmes :

  • Les technologies des pompes manuelles ;
  • Les forages à moindre coût ;
  • La gestion à moindre coût des ressources en eau

Related Resources

Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing water in Nigeria’s Megacity of Lagos and beyond

The Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) is continuing its work on cost-effective boreholes under its theme of Sustainable Groundwater Development. The network is supporting stakeholders to improve borehole drilling policies and practices. As part of this effort, UNICEF and Skat Foundation are collaborating on manual drilling in Africa. The 2012 to 2014 collaboration documented and facilitated exchange on the introduction and professionalization of manual drilling in more than 20 countries.

This report is about the role played by manually drilled boreholes in meeting water needs in Lagos city, Lagos State and more widely in Nigeria. By examining Nigeria, the report draws out key lessons for those who are promoting, or trying to regulate manual drilling in other countries. It is hoped that this report, and the accompanying photo/video documentary and blogs will trigger action to better support manual drilling efforts in Lagos, in Nigeria and in other countries. | more information »

Code of Practice for Water Well Construction


This Nigerian Code of Practice for Well Construction was elaborated by the Technical Committee for Water Well Construction.
Groundwater development is one of the sources of the Federal and State Governments Water Supply Intervention Programmes under which government embarked on construction of open wells and boreholes in order to increase access to portable water to Nigerians. However, water well construction is still characterized by cases of “failed hole”, poor quality service, and unprofessional conduct of drillers and lack of established code to regulate the practice of water well drilling in Nigeria. These are serious concern to government, donor agencies and sector stakeholders who see them as militating factors towards attainment of water supply project objectives in particular and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in general. This Code of Practice was therefore elaborated to provide the framework for water well construction in Nigeria.
In the elaboration of this Code of Practice, reference made to Nigerian Industrial standards and National standards of other countries are acknowledged. | more information »

Handpumps: where now?

A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

In 2012, RWSN established as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below. | more information »

UNICEF Hand Pump R&D Project in Ranga Reddy District Andhra Pradesh

Concluding Report

This Project represents the next generation of systematic development of hand pump components with modern materials under UNICEF’s sponsorship, both intellectually and financially. This Project also establishes the relevance of Ranga Reddy Test Area for hand pumps, where field testing of hand pumps under deep static water table conditions has been undertaken for many years. Hence, the results of this project’s field trials supercede similar work done in the past on similar materials and under similar or more favourable physical conditions.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water quality testing to establish whether high iron originates from corrosion of pump components or the aquifer

Method Sheet

The Problem:
(1) Production of a red/brown coloured discharge first thing in the morning. This is caused by the discharge of corrosion products that have accumulated in the well during the night when there was no pumping. In most cases, the discharge clears up as the solid corrosion products are removed from the well.

(2) Discolouration of water which was clear when pumped, but develops a red/brown discolouration after a few minutes to hours. This is the result of the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which causes the precipitation of iron hydroxides and oxides. This could be caused by either naturally high ferrous iron in the aquifer, or the addition of iron to the well water from corrosion of handpump components. | more information »

Handpumps Testing and Development: Progress Report on Field and Laboratory Testing

Work Bank Technical Paper Number 29

Rural Water Supply Handpumps Project

The UNDP/World Bank Project for the Testing and Technological Development of Handpumps for Rural Water Supply is field testing a total of 2860 pumps of 76 pump types in 17 countries. The Project has also completed full tests of 23 pump models at the Consumers' Association Laboratory in the United Kingdom and plans more tests both in the U.K^. and in laboratories elsewhere. Emphasis has been placed on the development of pumps which are suitable for "Village Level Operation and Maintenance" (VLOM).

The current report reviews all Project activities and conclusions to date, concentrating on field work but also summarizing laboratory activities. It relates significant findings in the development and use of VLOM handpumps. The report also reviews activities essential for the success of rural and urban fringe handpump programs, including community participation, caretaker training, and proper construction of wells and boreholes. | more information »

India Mark II hand pumps with open top cylinders in low lift application

Maintenance data analysis from 1986 till March, 1992

Phase 1 of the Orissa Drinking Water Supply project took place from August 1985 to December 1987 and resulted in the installation of about 1600 handpumps on tube wells. In Phase II of the project, 2000 handpumps were installed by August 1989 in 5 blocks and a further 600 pumps installed in another 4 blocks.

This paper confines itself to the analysis of the maintenance data of the 29 India Mark II pumps since their installations in 1986 and up to the 31st March 1992.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Performance of PVC riser pipes with India Mark II hand pumps

Results from field trials February 1988 to March 1992

Phase I of the Danida assisted Rural Drinking Water Supply Project in coastal Orissa was implemented during August 1985 to March 1988. During this period approximately 1650 tube wells with handpumps were constructed in 3 blocks of the 20 blocks of the project area. By 1987, the functionality study and maintenance system indicated that pump were falling into disuse to deterioration of water quality in the wells. Offensive odour, unacceptable colour and taste were common features observed from these wells.

This report analyses the problem and put forwards practical recommendations.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Performance of India Mark II solid link suction pumps in Danida assisted water supply project in coastal Orissa

Project Report

This first India Mark II Solid Link Suction was installed by Danida assiated Drionking Water Supply Project in Coastal Orissa, India in December 1986. This report is a performance analysis of the India Mark II Solid Link Suction pumps at the closure of the Orissa Project in December 1994. While about 750 pump had been installed by September 1994, detailed maintenance history were available for 229 pumps, installed in 6 blocks of coastal Orissa. This data forms the basis of this report.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water safety plan

A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use. | more information »