RWSN Thèmes

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine

L’eau souterraine permet à un nombre significatif d’habitants en milieu rural d’avoir accès à une eau potable sûre, et cela va continuer à être le cas dans le future. L’eau souterraine est relativement omniprésente, mais ses caractéristiques varient énormément et son exploitation est souvent entreprise avec une compréhension limitée de l’hydrogéologie et sans une évaluation suffisante de la ressource. Dans certains endroits, une utilisation intensive de la ressource en eau souterraine pour l’agriculture a conduit à des prélèvements trop importants et a eu pour conséquence que cette dernière est devenue hors d’atteinte pour un usage domestique du fait que les niveaux des nappes ont baissé. Il y a également des régions où la qualité de l’eau souterraine n’est pas adaptée à une consommation humaine (par exemple à cause de concentrations élevées en arsenic, fluor, fer ou nitrate, ou du fait de la contamination liée à l’homme comme un assainissement faible ou un déversement accidentel de pétrole ou de produits chimiques).

L’objectif du thème « Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine » est le suivant : les ressources en eau souterraines sont bien prises en considération et utilisées de manière durable pour développer l’approvisionnement en eau potable ». Le thème a trois sous-thèmes :

  • Les technologies des pompes manuelles ;
  • Les forages à moindre coût ;
  • La gestion à moindre coût des ressources en eau

Related Resources

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved. | more information »

UPGro Consortium Kick-off meeting presentations

London, 22 April 2015

The second phase of the 'Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor' (UPGro) was launched in London on 22 April 2015. These are the powerpoint presentations from the day. | more information »

- Atelier Final, Dakar, Senegal, 8 Avrill 2015: Utilisation de la télédétection et de la modélisation du terrain pour l'identification des zones favorables aux forages manuels

- Final Workshop, Dakar, 8 April 2015: Remote sensing and terrain modelling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa

This set of presentation was given at the closing workshop in Dakar, 8 April 2015 of the UPGro Catalyst project : "Use of remote sensing and terrain modelling to map manual drilling potential in Senegal and Guinea" | more information »

Water Source Protection

Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects. | more information »

UPGro Catalyst projects

A synthesis and individual project activities and results

This report summarises the contribution to groundwater knowledge of the 15 catalyst projects funded through the UPGro programme between 2013 and 2014, plus the The Africa Groundwater Atlas and Literature Archive.
The projects worked in 12 individual countries (see next page - some countries had more than one project), and three had an Africa-wide focus or component.
At the time of writing two of the 15 projects are still running (Velasquez-Orta and Colombo). The Groundwater Atlas project will also continue as a major archive of African groundwater information. | more information »

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells. | more information »

A comparative study between “Rope pumps” and conventional piston pumps on water quality and other sustainability parameters

Appropriate technologies for rural water supply

In Tanzania there now are some 5000 Rope pumps both for small communities and Households. To compare Rope pumps with piston pumps like Afridev and Nira pumps regarding water quality, cost per capita and other aspects, the organisation ACRA effected a Comparative study. Some conclusions of the study are:
- Rural communities do not prefer piston pumps above Rope pump
-The water quality of tested Rope pumps is lower than Piston pumps but this is mainly due to bad installation. If installed right there is not much difference in water quality.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015

RWSN Publication 2015-2

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours! | more information »

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion

RWSN Publication 2015-1

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries). | more information »

RWSN Webinar Series - Early 2015

Groundwater, Self-supply and Equality

Presenters from more than 15 different organisations, working in over 15 countries share their practical experiences and research findings. Participants have the opportunity to ask questions, and meet others with similar interests at the events. Topic covered include:
- radio for rural water supplies, drawing on practical experiences from Kenya and Tanzania.
- Self-supply in emergency and development contexts, and we shall be hearing from Sierra Leone as well as Ethiopia, and on the costs and quality of self-supply as well as government roles.
- five webinars on groundwater.
- experiences about dealing with gender, violence and access to WASH.

All of the presentations and links to the recordings will be posted here within two to three days of each webinar. | more information »

Related Resources

A comparative study between “Rope pumps” and conventional piston pumps on water quality and other sustainability parameters

Appropriate technologies for rural water supply

In Tanzania there now are some 5000 Rope pumps both for small communities and Households. To compare Rope pumps with piston pumps like Afridev and Nira pumps regarding water quality, cost per capita and other aspects, the organisation ACRA effected a Comparative study. Some conclusions of the study are:
- Rural communities do not prefer piston pumps above Rope pump
-The water quality of tested Rope pumps is lower than Piston pumps but this is mainly due to bad installation. If installed right there is not much difference in water quality.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion

RWSN Publication 2015-1

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries). | more information »

Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

UNICEF Contract 43147804

This study is seen as an extension of a study carried out in 2009 by UNICEF, which mapped the handpumps and spare parts market in Africa as a whole. The study found that although large numbers of handpumps are sold in Africa each year, availability of spare parts at community level is still a great challenge. In addition, supply chains for handpumps and spare parts are normally separated, and there are challenges with availability, affordability as well as sufficient community structures to ensure demand.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

India Mark II Major Maintenance Guide

This is a stripped down, no-nonsense guide to stripping down an India Mark II handpump, with clear photos, diagrams and text. It is undated.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred | more information »

An Assessment of the EMAS Pump and its Potential for Use in Household Water Systems in Uganda

University of South Florida MSc Thesis

Rural improved water supply coverage in Uganda has stagnated around 64% for a number of years and at this point more than 10 million rural people do not have access to an improved drinking water source. It has been recognized that progress toward improved water supply coverage and increased service levels may be gained through Government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) support of private investment in household and shared water supplies, commonly known as Self-supply.
There are indications that low-cost wells and underground rainwater tanks are applicable in many parts of Uganda and could be paired with an EMAS Pump to achieve significant affordability for Self-supply household water systems. Recommendations are provided in terms of the feasibility of introducing the EMAS Pump as a part of Self-supply strategies in Uganda. | more information »

Handpumps: where now?

A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

In 2012, RWSN established Dgroups.org as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below. | more information »

UNICEF Hand Pump R&D Project in Ranga Reddy District Andhra Pradesh

Concluding Report

This Project represents the next generation of systematic development of hand pump components with modern materials under UNICEF’s sponsorship, both intellectually and financially. This Project also establishes the relevance of Ranga Reddy Test Area for hand pumps, where field testing of hand pumps under deep static water table conditions has been undertaken for many years. Hence, the results of this project’s field trials supercede similar work done in the past on similar materials and under similar or more favourable physical conditions.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water quality testing to establish whether high iron originates from corrosion of pump components or the aquifer

Method Sheet

The Problem:
(1) Production of a red/brown coloured discharge first thing in the morning. This is caused by the discharge of corrosion products that have accumulated in the well during the night when there was no pumping. In most cases, the discharge clears up as the solid corrosion products are removed from the well.

(2) Discolouration of water which was clear when pumped, but develops a red/brown discolouration after a few minutes to hours. This is the result of the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which causes the precipitation of iron hydroxides and oxides. This could be caused by either naturally high ferrous iron in the aquifer, or the addition of iron to the well water from corrosion of handpump components. | more information »

Handpumps Testing and Development: Progress Report on Field and Laboratory Testing

Work Bank Technical Paper Number 29

Rural Water Supply Handpumps Project

The UNDP/World Bank Project for the Testing and Technological Development of Handpumps for Rural Water Supply is field testing a total of 2860 pumps of 76 pump types in 17 countries. The Project has also completed full tests of 23 pump models at the Consumers' Association Laboratory in the United Kingdom and plans more tests both in the U.K^. and in laboratories elsewhere. Emphasis has been placed on the development of pumps which are suitable for "Village Level Operation and Maintenance" (VLOM).

The current report reviews all Project activities and conclusions to date, concentrating on field work but also summarizing laboratory activities. It relates significant findings in the development and use of VLOM handpumps. The report also reviews activities essential for the success of rural and urban fringe handpump programs, including community participation, caretaker training, and proper construction of wells and boreholes. | more information »

India Mark II hand pumps with open top cylinders in low lift application

Maintenance data analysis from 1986 till March, 1992

Phase 1 of the Orissa Drinking Water Supply project took place from August 1985 to December 1987 and resulted in the installation of about 1600 handpumps on tube wells. In Phase II of the project, 2000 handpumps were installed by August 1989 in 5 blocks and a further 600 pumps installed in another 4 blocks.

This paper confines itself to the analysis of the maintenance data of the 29 India Mark II pumps since their installations in 1986 and up to the 31st March 1992.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Related Resources

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved. | more information »

- Atelier Final, Dakar, Senegal, 8 Avrill 2015: Utilisation de la télédétection et de la modélisation du terrain pour l'identification des zones favorables aux forages manuels

- Final Workshop, Dakar, 8 April 2015: Remote sensing and terrain modelling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa

This set of presentation was given at the closing workshop in Dakar, 8 April 2015 of the UPGro Catalyst project : "Use of remote sensing and terrain modelling to map manual drilling potential in Senegal and Guinea" | more information »

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells. | more information »

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015

RWSN Publication 2015-2

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours! | more information »

RWSN Webinar Series - Early 2015

Groundwater, Self-supply and Equality

Presenters from more than 15 different organisations, working in over 15 countries share their practical experiences and research findings. Participants have the opportunity to ask questions, and meet others with similar interests at the events. Topic covered include:
- radio for rural water supplies, drawing on practical experiences from Kenya and Tanzania.
- Self-supply in emergency and development contexts, and we shall be hearing from Sierra Leone as well as Ethiopia, and on the costs and quality of self-supply as well as government roles.
- five webinars on groundwater.
- experiences about dealing with gender, violence and access to WASH.

All of the presentations and links to the recordings will be posted here within two to three days of each webinar. | more information »

Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing water in Nigeria’s Megacity of Lagos and beyond

The Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) is continuing its work on cost-effective boreholes under its theme of Sustainable Groundwater Development. The network is supporting stakeholders to improve borehole drilling policies and practices. As part of this effort, UNICEF and Skat Foundation are collaborating on manual drilling in Africa. The 2012 to 2014 collaboration documented and facilitated exchange on the introduction and professionalization of manual drilling in more than 20 countries.

This report is about the role played by manually drilled boreholes in meeting water needs in Lagos city, Lagos State and more widely in Nigeria. By examining Nigeria, the report draws out key lessons for those who are promoting, or trying to regulate manual drilling in other countries. It is hoped that this report, and the accompanying photo/video documentary and blogs will trigger action to better support manual drilling efforts in Lagos, in Nigeria and in other countries. | more information »

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” in Zimbabwe

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the Bailer-bucket, Bucket Pump and Blair Pump. | more information »

Webinar Series 2014 (UNICEF- RWSN) on Manual Drilling/Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel

Five Interactive webinars, which aim to promote South-South sharing. Une séries de cinq (5) Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel.

Manual Drilling has now been successfully implemented in many countries, with several taking it to scale. The webinars will provide participants with an opportunity to learn from the successes and challenges experienced from different organisations and trigger discussion, with time for questions and exchange of perspectives.
Webinars are in both French and English, with corresponding summaries also being made available in both languages.

Le but est de partager vos expériences et contribuer au débat dans la région Sud
Beaucoup de pays ont achevé de succès dans leur entretien du programme de forage manuel. Plusieurs de ces pays maintenant mettent à l’échelle le programme. Les sessions auront deux parties. Dans la première partie, vous apprendrez des succès et des difficultés dont UNICEF et ses partenaires font face à en ménageant un programme de forage manuel. Dans la deuxième partie, vous êtes invitez à poser des questions et faire des commentaires. Les sessions sont en Anglais et en Français; aussi que les matériaux des présentations et des discussions. | more information »

Self Supply in Tanzania: SHIPO’s Training of local drillers and rope pump producers in Makambako, 2012/2013

Report on Follow up of Training

The Tanzanian NGO SHIPO gives training to local welders and drillers to provide products such as rope pumps and manual drilling. Using a market-based approach, households and institutions can benefit from products and services to improve their own water supplies (self supply). This report documents the achievements of an intervention to develop the capacity of the local private sector. It presents issues and ideas on reaching rural households and assuring the quality of products and services. | more information »

Professionalising Manual Drilling: Guinea

A country summary

Manual drilling was introduced into Guinea over the last three years. Previously there was no knowledge or experience of these technologies. About 50 manually drilled wells have been constructed to date, primarily for community water supplies. Although there are considerable funds available for further promotion of the technology, particularly through UNICEF, there is need to consolidate the experiences to date before moving on to another next phase of training and construction. It is also very important that the national government agencies responsible for rural water supplies as well as the local governments are given the opportunity to learn more about manual drilling technologies, including their potential and risks. | more information »

Related Resources

Analyse des coûts et détermination des prix

Guide à l’intention des entreprises de forage d’eau

La présente note pratique est destinée aux entreprises de forage et aux sociétés qui gèrent ou participent à des projets de forage. Grâce à une approche par étape, elle donne des directives claires sur la manière d’analyser les coûts et de déterminer les prix pour la réalisation de forages. Elle fournit également des conseils de ges-tion en soulignant les réalités propres à de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne. Sa lecture vous permettra d’être mieux à même de calculer les coûts des forages, de réfléchir aux prix et de faire face aux réalités commerciales.

L’analyse des coûts et la détermination des prix passent par cinq étapes: (1) l’identification des coûts de fonctionnement de base de votre entreprise, (2) l’analyse du dossier d’appel d’offres, (3) la définition des catégories de coûts, (4) le calcul des coûts et (5) la détermination des prix. Lors de chaque étape, plusieurs points clés doivent être pris en compte. Les coûts se décomposent comme suit: implantation du forage, amenée, forage, équipement/complé¬tion, développement du forage/test de pompage et installation de la pompe. La présente note fournit des exemples pratiques et éprouvés qui permettent de comprendre aisément la méthode d’analyse des coûts et aborde également les devis quantitatifs, les procédures d’appel d’offres et la gestion des risques et des incertitudes. Les auteurs fournissent par ailleurs des conseils pour une gestion efficace de la procédure. | more information »

Implantation des forages

Guide à l’intention des chefs de projet

La présente note pratique s’adresse aux responsables de pro-grammes et de projets d’approvisionnement en eau. Elle propose un guide détaillé relatif à l’implantation de forages. Elle expose tout d’abord les principes fondamentaux pour l’élaboration d’un modèle hydrogéologique simple et fournit des explications de base visant à aider le lecteur à acquérir une meilleure compréhension de l’hydro¬géologie.

Elle détaille ensuite les éléments à prendre en compte lors du choix du site de forage, à savoir les caractéristiques du forage et une liste complète d’instructions en vue de trouver le site le plus adapté. Sont également présentés les points clés du dossier d’appel d’offres et des documents contractuels, ainsi que des informations de base sur le travail de terrain et la gestion des contrats. | more information »

Passation de marchés et gestion des contrats de construction de forages

Guide à l’intention des superviseurs et chefs de projet

Le taux élevé de forages non fonctionnels dans de nombreuses parties du monde est en partie attribuable à un manque de profes-sionnalisme dans le secteur du forage. Il convient de faire appel à des entreprises compétentes et expérimentées afin d’améliorer l’accès à un approvisionnement en eau potable sûr et durable, ainsi qu’à du matériel adapté et à des consultants expérimentés pour superviser la construction.

Le présent guide a pour objet d’aider les chefs de projet travaillant dans le domaine de l’approvisionnement en eau souterraine au moyen de forages. Il définit les procédures de passation de mar-chés et de gestion des contrats permettant le recrutement de con-sultants, d’entreprises de forage et de fournisseurs professionnels et compétents. Il permettra aux clients de s’assurer qu’ils disposent des connaissances nécessaires pour obtenir les résultats attendus de leurs contrats de forage. | more information »

Supervision des forages d’eau potable

Guide à l’intention des superviseurs

La qualité de la supervision des forages joue un rôle primordial dans la réalisation de puits pérennes. Le présent guide s’adresse aux géologues et aux ingénieurs responsables de la construction de forages ainsi qu'aux chefs de projet. Il peut servir à la fois d'outil de formation et de manuel.

Le présent document décrit les responsabilités du superviseur aux différents stades de la construction d'un forage. Il explique ce qu’il convient de faire à chaque étape pour s’assurer que le foreur livre un ouvrage conforme aux dispositions contractuelles. | more information »

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine: utilisation, protection, amélioration

Publication 2014-3

La présente publication du Réseau pour l’approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural (RWSN) souhaite mieux faire comprendre l’importance cruciale que revêtent les eaux souterraines et souligner les risques qui pèsent sur leur pérennité. Elle s’adresse aux responsables politiques, aux décideurs, aux partenaires gouvernementaux et au grand public. Elle prône une utilisation responsable des eaux souterraines et met en garde contre les abus. Elle encourage les usagers à protéger et à améliorer ces ressources précieuses afin de servir les intérêts à long terme des communautés les plus vulnérables ayant principalement recours aux pompes manuelles. | more information »

Procurement & Gestão de Contratos de Construção de Furos de Água

Um Guião para Fiscais e Gestores de Projectos

A alta taxa de furos de água inoperacionais em muitas partes do mun-do é atribuído, em parte, à falta de profissionalismo no sector de perfu-ração. A fim de aumentar o acesso a um abastecimento de água segu-ro e sustentável, empreiteiras de perfuração competentes e experientes devem ser contratados. Da mesma forma, o equipamento adequado é necessária e consultores experientes são necessários para supervisionar a construção. | more information »

Fiscalização de Furos de Água

Um guião para Fiscais

Boa fiscalização da execução de furos de água é essencial para a provisão de furos de água de longa duração. Estes apontamentos (guia) servem para ajudar aos geólogos e engenheiros encarrega-dos da fiscalização da construção de furos, bem como aos gestores de projectos. Estes podem ser usados para preparar-se uma for-mação, e também como um manual. | more information »

Procurement and Contract Management of Drilled Well Construction

A Guide for Supervisors and Project Managers

The high rate of non-functional boreholes in many parts of the world is attributable, in part, to a lack of professionalism in the drilling sector. In order to increase access to a safe and sustainable water supply, competent and experienced drilling contractors must be engaged. Likewise, suitable equipment is needed and experienced consultants are required to supervise construction.
This guidance note assists project managers involved in the provision of groundwater supplies using boreholes. It sets out procurement and contract management procedures that will lead to the engagement of professional groundwater consultants, drilling contractors and suppliers. The publication will enable clients to ensure that they have the know-how to get the expected results out of drilling contracts. | more information »

Code de bonnes pratiques pour la réalisation de forages

Version française

La réalisation d’ouvrages pérennes d’exploitation d’eau souterraine est fondamentale pour l’accès universel à l’eau potable. Ce docu-ment, Le Code de bonnes pratiques pour la réalisation de forages présente un cadre pour l’accès à l’eau sur la base de critères écono-miques et de santé publique. Ces bonnes pratiques visent à optimi-ser le rapport qualité/prix de l’investissement à long terme. Les forages étant construits pour fonctionner sur une durée de vie de 20 à 50 ans, le plus bas prix ne représente pas toujours l’optimum économique, en particulier lorsque la qualité des ouvrages est sacri-fiée afin d’économiser sur les investissements. La réalisation de fo-rages très bon marché ou de mauvaise qualité peut engendrer des dysfonctionnements prématurés ou la contamination de la res-source en eau. Ceux-ci sont par la suite abandonnés par les usagers et n’ont pas à l’évidence un bon rapport coût-efficacité. | more information »

Supervising Water Well Drilling

A guide for supervisors

Good supervision of water well drilling is essential for the provision of long-lasting water wells. This guidance note assists geologists and engineers in charge of the supervision of borehole construction as well as project managers. It can be used to prepare for training, and as a manual.
This guide details the responsibilities of the drilling supervisor at the different stages of borehole construction. It explains the actions to be carried out at each stage that will ensure that the driller delivers the borehole as specified in the contract. | more information »

Related Resources

Water Source Protection

Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects. | more information »

Framework for Water Source Protection

Ministry of Water & Environment, Uganda

These guidelines were developed as part of the wider operationalisation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The basis of the guidelines is developing a 'Water Source Protection Plan', which bridges the gap between Water Safety Planning, payment for watershed services and IWRM. The planning process encourages the owners/operators of water infrastructure (pumping stations, dams, valley tanks, boreholes) to identify the people in the catchment area for their water source whose activities may be impacting the quantity, quality or reliability of their water supply, and then to agree a mutually beneficial plan of action.

Of the five volumes, three are currently available from MWE from their website (or below) | more information »

How to Make Water Wise Roads

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water safety plan

A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use. | more information »

Local Council Water Security Training Course

The course provide appreciation and knowledge of water resources management, a better understanding of risks to water resources, introduces techniques for monitoring water resources and enable a better understanding of the factors that need to be considered when planning WRM activities. | more information »

Experiences and Ideas from RWSN’s Sustainable Groundwater Community 2013

What are we talking about?

The RWSN’s Sustainable Groundwater Development community (http://next.dgroups.org/rwsn/groundwater) comprises over 500 members from 69 countries. There has been vibrant exchange and debates on topics such as national groundwater policies, gravel packing, drilling technologies, the life of a handpump and many more. This synthesis pulls together the many ideas, opinions, experiences and suggestions from the online community and makes recommendations for a collaborative way forward. | more information »

Social adoption of groundwater pumping technology and the development of groundwater cultures

Governance at the point of abstraction. Thematic Paper 8.

This thematic paper examines the historic and on‐going development of water‐lifting technologies and the governance problems and solutions that have arisen from controlled or uncontrolled groundwater abstraction.
It also examines legislation on improved pump efficiency and the economics and life‐cycle costing of borehole
pumps.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water Catchment Protection Handbook

1. Learning and Experience Sharing Series

This document describes a more or less standardised approach for the organisational and technical implementation of water catchment protection. This approach consists of 8 steps:
1: Preparation
2: Sensitisation of the population
3: Feasibility study
4: Water catchment protection plan
5: Land demarcation and ownership
6: Implementation water catchment protection
7: Operation and maintenance
8: Monitoring and evaluation

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Helvetas Cameroon Experiences in Catchment Protection Activities

Assessment

Helvetas Cameroon has been active for more than 10 years in water catchment protection in the North West Province. In this report a review is presented of the activities performed by Helvetas Cameroon in water catchment protection and the best practises are summarised. This was done by reviewing literature on water catchment protection and 6 field visits to sites where Helvetas Cameroon has been actively involved in water catchment protection.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Groundwater Quality Protection

A guide for water utilities, muncipal authorities, and environment agencies

This publication provides guidance to water-sector decision makers and planners on how to deal with the quality dimension of groundwater resources management in the World Bank's client countries. There is growing evidence of increasing pollution threats to groundwater and some well-documented cases of irreversible damage to important aquifers. This guide has been produced in the belief that groundwater pollution hazard assessment must become an essential part of environmental best practice for water supply utilities. The guide is particularly relevant for the World Bank's Latin American and Caribbean Region, where many countries have initiated major changes to modernize their institutional and legal framework for water resources management, but may not yet have considered groundwater at the same level as surface water, because of lack of awareness and knowledge of groundwater issues and policy options.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »