RWSN Thèmes

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine

L’eau souterraine permet à un nombre significatif d’habitants en milieu rural d’avoir accès à une eau potable sûre, et cela va continuer à être le cas dans le future. L’eau souterraine est relativement omniprésente, mais ses caractéristiques varient énormément et son exploitation est souvent entreprise avec une compréhension limitée de l’hydrogéologie et sans une évaluation suffisante de la ressource. Dans certains endroits, une utilisation intensive de la ressource en eau souterraine pour l’agriculture a conduit à des prélèvements trop importants et a eu pour conséquence que cette dernière est devenue hors d’atteinte pour un usage domestique du fait que les niveaux des nappes ont baissé. Il y a également des régions où la qualité de l’eau souterraine n’est pas adaptée à une consommation humaine (par exemple à cause de concentrations élevées en arsenic, fluor, fer ou nitrate, ou du fait de la contamination liée à l’homme comme un assainissement faible ou un déversement accidentel de pétrole ou de produits chimiques).

L’objectif du thème « Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine » est le suivant : les ressources en eau souterraines sont bien prises en considération et utilisées de manière durable pour développer l’approvisionnement en eau potable ». Le thème a trois sous-thèmes :

  • Les technologies des pompes manuelles ;
  • Les forages à moindre coût ;
  • La gestion à moindre coût des ressources en eau

Related Resources

Developing Groundwater: A guide for rural water supply

In many rural areas, groundwater is the only feasible way of providing safe, reliable water supplies. However, developing groundwater is not always straightforward. To meet the targets set out in the Millennium Development Goals, more attention needs to be paid to finding and developing groundwater in a sustainable, cost-effective and participatory manner. Developing Groundwater provides a user-friendly guide to this key topic, bringing together for the first time the wide range of techniques required to develop groundwater for community water supplies. This practical manual gives information on effective techniques for siting wells and boreholes, assessing the sustainability of sources, constructing and testing the yield of boreholes and wells, and monitoring groundwater quality. The authors set the technical aspects of rural water supply firmly in their socio-economic context, so that readers can take proper account of community concerns as well as purely engineering questions. Packed with helpful illustrations this book is indispensable for all rural water supply project staff in developing countries.

Alan MacDonald is a hydrogeologist at the British Geological Survey. He has worked extensively in Africa, Asia and the Pacific in partnership with government departments, NGOs, research institutes and rural communities. Much of his work has focused on the practical issues of developing groundwater resources for rural water supply.

1) Go to http://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780441290
2) Each chapter is downloadable separately from the Table of Contents on this page. Click on “PDF ({file size} kb)” under each chapter heading.
3) The PDF of the chapter should appear in your browser, then download or save the PDF to your computer or device. | more information »

Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation

Guidelines for

There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still remains without access to safe water and sanitation, and many of these can only be served by groundwater. The need for renewed efforts to improve the situation is recognised in DFID's recently published water strategy paper - ''Addressing the Water Crisis - Healthier and More Productive Lives for Poor People''.

These guidelines are an important contribution to risk assessment and the avoidance of the contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation. They have been development as part of a project funded by DFID through the water component of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division's Knowledge and Research Programme. | more information »

Procurement, Costing & Pricing and Contract Management of Borehole Construction - Zambia Short Course Report

Striving for Professionalism in Cost Effective Boreholes in Zambia

The Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) Zambia and the Water and Resources Management Authority (WARMA) weresupported by the cooperation of UNICEF and Skat Foundation to strengthen capacity in the country with respect to siting, drilling, supervision, procurement and contract management. The support included the delivery of a five-day short course to 38 participants in Zambia on drilling procurement, costing & pricing and contract management. This report presents the proceedings and outcomes of the course. | more information »

Groundwater Resources of Malawi

This report comprises a summary and interpretation of all available archive hydrogeological data from boreholes and wells up to December 1981. In addition, information has been obtained from the more recent work of the Groundwater Section, both in its general groundwater development programme and in the specific investigations into key aspects of the hydrogeology, primarily aquifer properties and water level fluctuations. | more information »

Manual for Integrated Projects for Rural Groundwater Supplies

This Manual has been prepared so that Malawian professional staff can effectively and economically provide domestic water supplies to the large number of Malawi rural villages that depend on groundwater. This Manual is distributed at the seminar so that other countries may benefit from significant advances in rural groundwater development which have taken place in Malawi over the past two years with the assistance of the United Kingdom Government and United Nations Development Programme. The Manual is based on work carried out by staff of the Department of Lands, Valuation and Water in co­ operation with staff of the UKODA and UNDTCD and the participation of Malawi's industrial sector. | more information »

Field Study Investigating the Potential of Water Quality

Testing to Predict Corrosion in Boreholes in Northern Uganda

Water sources are often abandoned by communities for two reasons: (1) the aesthetics of water quality that affects user acceptability and (2) the breakdown of pump parts that prohibits use of the borehole. Both can be related to the aggressiveness of water and both are important. Electroconductivity and pH and indices can indicate the potential of galvanic corrosion and electrochemical corrosion, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion contributes most to the high levels of iron from boreholes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pH strips in predicting groundwater pH and aggressiveness, compare the reliability of three different pH test strips to a Hanna pH probe, determine the origin of iron measured in boreholes, and make relevant recommendations. | more information »

Upgraded Family Wells in Zimbabwe (2012)

A study of Upgraded Family Well technology and training

Several years ago Zimbabwe embarked on a program of upgrading family owned wells. This program was fully endorsed by the GOZ and operated under the MOHCW. The program has been well documented in papers and other publications. This program was based on the fact that for many decades individual families had chosen to upgrade their own wells privately and outside the formal GOZ rural water supply and sanitation program. In the early 1980’s the number of family owned wells in Zimbabwe was estimated to be at least 100 000. Many of these were lined with bricks and had some form of head works. Many were fitted with windlasses – a legacy from the mining industry. The windlass made the bucket easier to lift and also retained the rope or chain in a hygienic position above ground. However the majority of family owned wells were poorly protected and open and were subject to contamination, especially during the rainy season and were also dangerous for children. | more information »

Supply Chains for Rural Water Supply in Uganda

HTN Report

The objective of this study is to review the status of supply chains for spare parts with the goal to identify appropriate interventions that will improve availability of spare parts. Supply of equipment cannot be de-linked from supply of spare parts therefore the study looks into the supply of equipment as well. | more information »

Evaluation of Hand Augered Well Technologies’ Capacity to Improve Access to Water in Coastal Ngöbe Communities in Panama

MSc thesis submitted to University of South Florida 2014

In Panama, the indigenous Ngöbe people in the ÑöKribo coastal area are a group disproportionately affected by a lack of improved access to drinking water and challenges to the feasibility of piped gravity fed water systems that typically serve the rest of the country. An NGO aiming to ameliorate this situation introduced two improved groundwater supply technologies to the region: bailers and EMAS hand pumps. This study assesses the comparative performance of these systems while evaluating the respective performances of existing water sources, using the wide variety of quantitative and qualitative data obtained.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Related Resources

Field Study Investigating the Potential of Water Quality

Testing to Predict Corrosion in Boreholes in Northern Uganda

Water sources are often abandoned by communities for two reasons: (1) the aesthetics of water quality that affects user acceptability and (2) the breakdown of pump parts that prohibits use of the borehole. Both can be related to the aggressiveness of water and both are important. Electroconductivity and pH and indices can indicate the potential of galvanic corrosion and electrochemical corrosion, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion contributes most to the high levels of iron from boreholes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pH strips in predicting groundwater pH and aggressiveness, compare the reliability of three different pH test strips to a Hanna pH probe, determine the origin of iron measured in boreholes, and make relevant recommendations. | more information »

Supply Chains for Rural Water Supply in Uganda

HTN Report

The objective of this study is to review the status of supply chains for spare parts with the goal to identify appropriate interventions that will improve availability of spare parts. Supply of equipment cannot be de-linked from supply of spare parts therefore the study looks into the supply of equipment as well. | more information »

Evaluation of Hand Augered Well Technologies’ Capacity to Improve Access to Water in Coastal Ngöbe Communities in Panama

MSc thesis submitted to University of South Florida 2014

In Panama, the indigenous Ngöbe people in the ÑöKribo coastal area are a group disproportionately affected by a lack of improved access to drinking water and challenges to the feasibility of piped gravity fed water systems that typically serve the rest of the country. An NGO aiming to ameliorate this situation introduced two improved groundwater supply technologies to the region: bailers and EMAS hand pumps. This study assesses the comparative performance of these systems while evaluating the respective performances of existing water sources, using the wide variety of quantitative and qualitative data obtained.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Elements of Sustainable Solar Water Pumping System Design

Synthesis and presentations from 2015 WEDC Conference Workshop

Technological advances over the past decade have made solar water pumping a viable option for potable water service delivery in rural settings. Solar pumping is an especially attractive alternative when poor groundwater quality or high population density and growth limit the applicability of boreholes fitted with handpumps. However, globally-accessible resources that specifically speak to the various technological, financial, social, environmental, institutional, and operational elements of sustainable solar pumping designs are limited. This workshop provides participants with an opportunity to explore various aspects of holistic design of solar pumping systems through guided group discussion. | more information »

Security systems for Hand Pumps in rural areas of Malawi

Description of technical solutions to protect Afridev hand pumps from robberies and vandalism developed by Inter Aide and its local partner BASEDA in Malawi. | more information »

Why wells should only be dug in a specific period of the year?

Understanding one of the main causes of wells’ drying in Sierra Leone, through an analysis of a water table movements.

A survey conducted by Inter Aide in 2010-2011 in 3 districts of Sierra Leone has highlighted that among 2028 hand-dug wells visited, 45% of them were not delivering water permanently all year long. | more information »

A comparative study between “Rope pumps” and conventional piston pumps on water quality and other sustainability parameters

Appropriate technologies for rural water supply

In Tanzania there now are some 5000 Rope pumps both for small communities and Households. To compare Rope pumps with piston pumps like Afridev and Nira pumps regarding water quality, cost per capita and other aspects, the organisation ACRA effected a Comparative study. Some conclusions of the study are:
- Rural communities do not prefer piston pumps above Rope pump
-The water quality of tested Rope pumps is lower than Piston pumps but this is mainly due to bad installation. If installed right there is not much difference in water quality.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion

RWSN Publication 2015-1

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries). | more information »

Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

UNICEF Contract 43147804

This study is seen as an extension of a study carried out in 2009 by UNICEF, which mapped the handpumps and spare parts market in Africa as a whole. The study found that although large numbers of handpumps are sold in Africa each year, availability of spare parts at community level is still a great challenge. In addition, supply chains for handpumps and spare parts are normally separated, and there are challenges with availability, affordability as well as sufficient community structures to ensure demand.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

India Mark II Major Maintenance Guide

This is a stripped down, no-nonsense guide to stripping down an India Mark II handpump, with clear photos, diagrams and text. It is undated.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred | more information »

Related Resources

Upgraded Family Wells in Zimbabwe (2012)

A study of Upgraded Family Well technology and training

Several years ago Zimbabwe embarked on a program of upgrading family owned wells. This program was fully endorsed by the GOZ and operated under the MOHCW. The program has been well documented in papers and other publications. This program was based on the fact that for many decades individual families had chosen to upgrade their own wells privately and outside the formal GOZ rural water supply and sanitation program. In the early 1980’s the number of family owned wells in Zimbabwe was estimated to be at least 100 000. Many of these were lined with bricks and had some form of head works. Many were fitted with windlasses – a legacy from the mining industry. The windlass made the bucket easier to lift and also retained the rope or chain in a hygienic position above ground. However the majority of family owned wells were poorly protected and open and were subject to contamination, especially during the rainy season and were also dangerous for children. | more information »

Evaluation of Hand Augered Well Technologies’ Capacity to Improve Access to Water in Coastal Ngöbe Communities in Panama

MSc thesis submitted to University of South Florida 2014

In Panama, the indigenous Ngöbe people in the ÑöKribo coastal area are a group disproportionately affected by a lack of improved access to drinking water and challenges to the feasibility of piped gravity fed water systems that typically serve the rest of the country. An NGO aiming to ameliorate this situation introduced two improved groundwater supply technologies to the region: bailers and EMAS hand pumps. This study assesses the comparative performance of these systems while evaluating the respective performances of existing water sources, using the wide variety of quantitative and qualitative data obtained.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved. | more information »

- Atelier Final, Dakar, Senegal, 8 Avrill 2015: Utilisation de la télédétection et de la modélisation du terrain pour l'identification des zones favorables aux forages manuels

- Final Workshop, Dakar, 8 April 2015: Remote sensing and terrain modelling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa

This set of presentation was given at the closing workshop in Dakar, 8 April 2015 of the UPGro Catalyst project : "Use of remote sensing and terrain modelling to map manual drilling potential in Senegal and Guinea" | more information »

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells. | more information »

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015

RWSN Publication 2015-2

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours! | more information »

RWSN Webinar Series 2015

Presenters from more than 25 different organisations, working in over 20 countries share their practical experiences and research findings. Participants have the opportunity to ask questions, and meet others with similar interests at the events. Topic covered include:
- radio for rural water supplies, drawing on practical experiences from Kenya and Tanzania.
- Self-supply in emergency and development contexts, and we shall be hearing from Sierra Leone as well as Ethiopia, and on the costs and quality of self-supply as well as government roles.
- a series of webinars on groundwater.
- experiences about dealing with gender, violence and access to WASH
- rainwater harvesting
- etc.

All of the presentations and links to the recordings will be posted here within two to three days of each webinar. | more information »

Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing water in Nigeria’s Megacity of Lagos and beyond

The Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) is continuing its work on cost-effective boreholes under its theme of Sustainable Groundwater Development. The network is supporting stakeholders to improve borehole drilling policies and practices. As part of this effort, UNICEF and Skat Foundation are collaborating on manual drilling in Africa. The 2012 to 2014 collaboration documented and facilitated exchange on the introduction and professionalization of manual drilling in more than 20 countries.

This report is about the role played by manually drilled boreholes in meeting water needs in Lagos city, Lagos State and more widely in Nigeria. By examining Nigeria, the report draws out key lessons for those who are promoting, or trying to regulate manual drilling in other countries. It is hoped that this report, and the accompanying photo/video documentary and blogs will trigger action to better support manual drilling efforts in Lagos, in Nigeria and in other countries. | more information »

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” in Zimbabwe

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the Bailer-bucket, Bucket Pump and Blair Pump. | more information »

Related Resources

Analyse des coûts et détermination des prix

Guide à l’intention des entreprises de forage d’eau

La présente note pratique est destinée aux entreprises de forage et aux sociétés qui gèrent ou participent à des projets de forage. Grâce à une approche par étape, elle donne des directives claires sur la manière d’analyser les coûts et de déterminer les prix pour la réalisation de forages. Elle fournit également des conseils de ges-tion en soulignant les réalités propres à de nombreux pays d’Afrique subsaharienne. Sa lecture vous permettra d’être mieux à même de calculer les coûts des forages, de réfléchir aux prix et de faire face aux réalités commerciales.

L’analyse des coûts et la détermination des prix passent par cinq étapes: (1) l’identification des coûts de fonctionnement de base de votre entreprise, (2) l’analyse du dossier d’appel d’offres, (3) la définition des catégories de coûts, (4) le calcul des coûts et (5) la détermination des prix. Lors de chaque étape, plusieurs points clés doivent être pris en compte. Les coûts se décomposent comme suit: implantation du forage, amenée, forage, équipement/complé¬tion, développement du forage/test de pompage et installation de la pompe. La présente note fournit des exemples pratiques et éprouvés qui permettent de comprendre aisément la méthode d’analyse des coûts et aborde également les devis quantitatifs, les procédures d’appel d’offres et la gestion des risques et des incertitudes. Les auteurs fournissent par ailleurs des conseils pour une gestion efficace de la procédure. | more information »

Implantation des forages

Guide à l’intention des chefs de projet

La présente note pratique s’adresse aux responsables de pro-grammes et de projets d’approvisionnement en eau. Elle propose un guide détaillé relatif à l’implantation de forages. Elle expose tout d’abord les principes fondamentaux pour l’élaboration d’un modèle hydrogéologique simple et fournit des explications de base visant à aider le lecteur à acquérir une meilleure compréhension de l’hydro¬géologie.

Elle détaille ensuite les éléments à prendre en compte lors du choix du site de forage, à savoir les caractéristiques du forage et une liste complète d’instructions en vue de trouver le site le plus adapté. Sont également présentés les points clés du dossier d’appel d’offres et des documents contractuels, ainsi que des informations de base sur le travail de terrain et la gestion des contrats. | more information »

Passation de marchés et gestion des contrats de construction de forages

Guide à l’intention des superviseurs et chefs de projet

Le taux élevé de forages non fonctionnels dans de nombreuses parties du monde est en partie attribuable à un manque de profes-sionnalisme dans le secteur du forage. Il convient de faire appel à des entreprises compétentes et expérimentées afin d’améliorer l’accès à un approvisionnement en eau potable sûr et durable, ainsi qu’à du matériel adapté et à des consultants expérimentés pour superviser la construction.

Le présent guide a pour objet d’aider les chefs de projet travaillant dans le domaine de l’approvisionnement en eau souterraine au moyen de forages. Il définit les procédures de passation de mar-chés et de gestion des contrats permettant le recrutement de con-sultants, d’entreprises de forage et de fournisseurs professionnels et compétents. Il permettra aux clients de s’assurer qu’ils disposent des connaissances nécessaires pour obtenir les résultats attendus de leurs contrats de forage. | more information »

Supervision des forages d’eau potable

Guide à l’intention des superviseurs

La qualité de la supervision des forages joue un rôle primordial dans la réalisation de puits pérennes. Le présent guide s’adresse aux géologues et aux ingénieurs responsables de la construction de forages ainsi qu'aux chefs de projet. Il peut servir à la fois d'outil de formation et de manuel.

Le présent document décrit les responsabilités du superviseur aux différents stades de la construction d'un forage. Il explique ce qu’il convient de faire à chaque étape pour s’assurer que le foreur livre un ouvrage conforme aux dispositions contractuelles. | more information »

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine: utilisation, protection, amélioration

Publication 2014-3

La présente publication du Réseau pour l’approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural (RWSN) souhaite mieux faire comprendre l’importance cruciale que revêtent les eaux souterraines et souligner les risques qui pèsent sur leur pérennité. Elle s’adresse aux responsables politiques, aux décideurs, aux partenaires gouvernementaux et au grand public. Elle prône une utilisation responsable des eaux souterraines et met en garde contre les abus. Elle encourage les usagers à protéger et à améliorer ces ressources précieuses afin de servir les intérêts à long terme des communautés les plus vulnérables ayant principalement recours aux pompes manuelles. | more information »

Procurement & Gestão de Contratos de Construção de Furos de Água

Um Guião para Fiscais e Gestores de Projectos

A alta taxa de furos de água inoperacionais em muitas partes do mun-do é atribuído, em parte, à falta de profissionalismo no sector de perfu-ração. A fim de aumentar o acesso a um abastecimento de água segu-ro e sustentável, empreiteiras de perfuração competentes e experientes devem ser contratados. Da mesma forma, o equipamento adequado é necessária e consultores experientes são necessários para supervisionar a construção. | more information »

Fiscalização de Furos de Água

Um guião para Fiscais

Boa fiscalização da execução de furos de água é essencial para a provisão de furos de água de longa duração. Estes apontamentos (guia) servem para ajudar aos geólogos e engenheiros encarrega-dos da fiscalização da construção de furos, bem como aos gestores de projectos. Estes podem ser usados para preparar-se uma for-mação, e também como um manual. | more information »

Procurement and Contract Management of Drilled Well Construction

A Guide for Supervisors and Project Managers

The high rate of non-functional boreholes in many parts of the world is attributable, in part, to a lack of professionalism in the drilling sector. In order to increase access to a safe and sustainable water supply, competent and experienced drilling contractors must be engaged. Likewise, suitable equipment is needed and experienced consultants are required to supervise construction.
This guidance note assists project managers involved in the provision of groundwater supplies using boreholes. It sets out procurement and contract management procedures that will lead to the engagement of professional groundwater consultants, drilling contractors and suppliers. The publication will enable clients to ensure that they have the know-how to get the expected results out of drilling contracts. | more information »

Code de bonnes pratiques pour la réalisation de forages

Version française

La réalisation d’ouvrages pérennes d’exploitation d’eau souterraine est fondamentale pour l’accès universel à l’eau potable. Ce docu-ment, Le Code de bonnes pratiques pour la réalisation de forages présente un cadre pour l’accès à l’eau sur la base de critères écono-miques et de santé publique. Ces bonnes pratiques visent à optimi-ser le rapport qualité/prix de l’investissement à long terme. Les forages étant construits pour fonctionner sur une durée de vie de 20 à 50 ans, le plus bas prix ne représente pas toujours l’optimum économique, en particulier lorsque la qualité des ouvrages est sacri-fiée afin d’économiser sur les investissements. La réalisation de fo-rages très bon marché ou de mauvaise qualité peut engendrer des dysfonctionnements prématurés ou la contamination de la res-source en eau. Ceux-ci sont par la suite abandonnés par les usagers et n’ont pas à l’évidence un bon rapport coût-efficacité. | more information »

Supervising Water Well Drilling

A guide for supervisors

Good supervision of water well drilling is essential for the provision of long-lasting water wells. This guidance note assists geologists and engineers in charge of the supervision of borehole construction as well as project managers. It can be used to prepare for training, and as a manual.
This guide details the responsibilities of the drilling supervisor at the different stages of borehole construction. It explains the actions to be carried out at each stage that will ensure that the driller delivers the borehole as specified in the contract. | more information »

Related Resources

Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation

Guidelines for

There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still remains without access to safe water and sanitation, and many of these can only be served by groundwater. The need for renewed efforts to improve the situation is recognised in DFID's recently published water strategy paper - ''Addressing the Water Crisis - Healthier and More Productive Lives for Poor People''.

These guidelines are an important contribution to risk assessment and the avoidance of the contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation. They have been development as part of a project funded by DFID through the water component of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division's Knowledge and Research Programme. | more information »

Water Source Protection

Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects. | more information »

Framework for Water Source Protection

Ministry of Water & Environment, Uganda

These guidelines were developed as part of the wider operationalisation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The basis of the guidelines is developing a 'Water Source Protection Plan', which bridges the gap between Water Safety Planning, payment for watershed services and IWRM. The planning process encourages the owners/operators of water infrastructure (pumping stations, dams, valley tanks, boreholes) to identify the people in the catchment area for their water source whose activities may be impacting the quantity, quality or reliability of their water supply, and then to agree a mutually beneficial plan of action.

Of the five volumes, three are currently available from MWE from their website (or below) | more information »

How to Make Water Wise Roads

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water safety plan

A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use. | more information »

Local Council Water Security Training Course

The course provide appreciation and knowledge of water resources management, a better understanding of risks to water resources, introduces techniques for monitoring water resources and enable a better understanding of the factors that need to be considered when planning WRM activities. | more information »

Experiences and Ideas from RWSN’s Sustainable Groundwater Community 2013

What are we talking about?

The RWSN’s Sustainable Groundwater Development community (http://next.dgroups.org/rwsn/groundwater) comprises over 500 members from 69 countries. There has been vibrant exchange and debates on topics such as national groundwater policies, gravel packing, drilling technologies, the life of a handpump and many more. This synthesis pulls together the many ideas, opinions, experiences and suggestions from the online community and makes recommendations for a collaborative way forward. | more information »

Social adoption of groundwater pumping technology and the development of groundwater cultures

Governance at the point of abstraction. Thematic Paper 8.

This thematic paper examines the historic and on‐going development of water‐lifting technologies and the governance problems and solutions that have arisen from controlled or uncontrolled groundwater abstraction.
It also examines legislation on improved pump efficiency and the economics and life‐cycle costing of borehole
pumps.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »

Water Catchment Protection Handbook

1. Learning and Experience Sharing Series

This document describes a more or less standardised approach for the organisational and technical implementation of water catchment protection. This approach consists of 8 steps:
1: Preparation
2: Sensitisation of the population
3: Feasibility study
4: Water catchment protection plan
5: Land demarcation and ownership
6: Implementation water catchment protection
7: Operation and maintenance
8: Monitoring and evaluation

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred. | more information »