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Local Government and Rural Water Services that last: a way forward Rural Water Supply Reality Check

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Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

This paper is a synthesis of the major themes discussed during the local government e-discussion held during May 2015, which included 75 contributions from 58 people presenting experiences in English, French and Spanish and cases from 43 different countries from across the globe. Each week focused on a specific theme. Dedicated week facilitators introduced the theme in the beginning of the week, led the discussion during the week and summarised the main discussion points at the end of the week. The paper highlights the discussed role local government can and does play in ensuring sustainable water service provision, the challenges that local government is facing in fulfilling these roles and responsibilities, and the opportunities for overcoming these challenges.

Proceedings of the 7th RWSN Forum 29 Nov - 2 Dec 2016, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

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Author: FUREY, S. G. (editor)
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

The 2016 Rural Water Supply Network Forum in Abidjan was the first global gathering to consider the practical challenge of how everyone worldwide can get access to safe, affordable water by 2030. It was also the first RWSN Forum to take place in a francophone country, in the 25 years since the creation of the network.
The Forum gathered 467 rural water sector practitioners from over 300 organisations from 64 countries in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe, in a bilingual (English/French) four day event. It was opened by the Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, Mr Daniel Kaplan Duncan. We were joined by HE State Minster James Dengchol Tot, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia, as well as a delegation from AMCOW.

This Forum proceedings compiles all peer-reviewed materials. Separate downloads and links to the films can be found at: https://rwsn7.net/content/

Community management of water points: more problem than solution? RWSN Dgroups discussion synthesis

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Author: Naughton, M.
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat
Institution: RWSN

This note summarizes some of the broad points of a June 2017 RWSN blog written by Dr Ellie Chowns on communitybased management (CBM) and the ensuing discussion on the RWSN Sustainable Services DGroup, to which many RWSN members contributed .

CBM is the prevalent management model for rural water supply. So what are the issues?
• Lack of accountability: Community management enables government officials and donors alike to abdicate responsibility for ensuring long-term sustainable water services.
• Inefficiency and lack of sustainability: Preventive maintenance is almost never done, repairs are often slow and sub-standard, and committees are unable to collect and save funds.
• Disempowerment: CBM reinforces existing community power relations, thereby breeding conflict rather than strengthening social capital.
• Lack of scalability and dependence on external support: The CBM model has never reliably worked at any scale but is continued due to a lack of viable, or proven alternative. One can always find 'successful' case studies of where it has worked fantastically well – but these tend to be isolated systems, reliant on constant

Water and Sanitation Services: Achieving Sustainable Outcomes with Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean World Bank Toolkit, Report No: AUS11215

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Author: The World Bank Group
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank Group
Institution:

The objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical guidance and operational tools to promote the inclusive delivery of sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services to Indigenous peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services Partnering with the Private Sector

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Author: Menzies I.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: WSP
Institution: The World Bank

The objective of this Guidance Note is to offer practical, experience-based guidance to those considering or currently
engaging in PPP in the water sector, and to provide a basic understanding of water PPPs and the PPP cycle to better
inform dialogue with governments that are considering PPP arrangements.

It builds on the experience of WSP in supporting PPP reforms in developing countries, especially through the domestic private sector. Key stakeholders in this dialogue include government at all levels, service providers, policy makers, customers, civil society, and professionals.

Many water PPP engagements in developing countries are more domestically oriented and at a smaller scale than international transactions. This Note outlines a rationale and approach for launching a water sector PPP so that government leaders and private sector providers can have informed discussions about the path forward should they choose to explore this approach in their countries.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Short report on Self-supply Seminar at the “My Water-my business” event 20th March 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Author: OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

In the Growth & Transformation Plan of Ethiopia specific sector targets are defined for improving access and services for WASH. A comprehensive implementation framework has been developed and endorsed, the One WASH National program, which guides all actors of the Ethiopian WASH sector in their collective efforts for implementation of WASH related activities towards the defined targets. Within the One WASH National program Self-supply is listed as an option additional to communal water supply to provide access to water for households or group of households.

This input paper summarizes some reflections from selected inputs provided at the seminar on 20th March on Self-supply and its acceleration.

Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in WASH Experience in DRR mainstreaming in Nicaragua

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Author: BLACKWELL, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: SDC
Institution: SDC

The risk of disasters is high throughout Central America. In Nicaragua, multiple natural hazards (earthquakes, tsunami, hurricanes, tropical storms, drought, landslides) combine with severe levels of socioeconomic
vulnerability, placing the country near the top of all international lists of countries with high disaster risk. Nicaragua is ranked 4th in the Climate risk index published by German watch in 2015.

Multiple global, national, and local factors augment the hazards faced by water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and increase their vulnerability. Intense tropical storms and hurricanes are affecting regularly the water systems infrastructure. More frequent and less predictable droughts and intense deforestation have deprived the Nicaraguan dry zone of the water needed for human consumption and agricultural production over prolonged periods.

District Monitoring Water Point Mapping and Monitoring Series

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Author: Pearce, J, E. Greggio, and E. Stephens
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

This second webinar visited case studies of district monitoring experiences in Ethiopia, Bolivia and Ghana to review the methods, costs, challenges and lessons to be learned from each experience.

Webinar Series 2014 (RAIN - RWSN) Interactive webinars that aim promote sharing of knowledge and experience in rainwater harvesting

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RAIN/RWSN
Institution: RAIN/RWSN

The idea is simple. There is hardly a place in the world where it never rains. Rainwater belongs to everyone. And the methods to collect, store, use and reuse rainwater (to ‘harvest’ rainwater) are easy to apply. So why not spread those methods around the world?

RAIN Foundation and RWSN are collaborating on increasing understanding and uptake of rainwater harvesting, and connecting with people who are looking for help in implementing these systems.

This series of webinars show cases some of the innovative approaches being undertaken around the world.

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established Dgroups.org as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

Rainwater Harvesting: harnessing the storm Briefing Note on the RAIN-RWSN webinar series 2014

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RAIN

This 4 page briefing note summarises the key message from the RAIN-RWSN webinars of 2014, which included examples from Honduras, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda, Somalia, Madagascar and Nepal.

Evaluation of Hand Augered Well Technologies’ Capacity to Improve Access to Water in Coastal Ngöbe Communities in Panama MSc Thesis

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Author: HAYMAN, S.K.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: University of South Florida
Institution: University of South Florida

In Panama, the indigenous Ngöbe people in the ÑöKribo coastal area are a group disproportionately affected by a lack of improved access to drinking water and challenges to the feasibility of piped gravity fed water systems that typically serve the rest of the country. An NGO aiming to ameliorate this situation introduced two improved groundwater self-supply technologies to the region: bailers and EMAS hand pumps. This study assesses the comparative performance of these systems while evaluating the respective performances of existing water sources, using the wide variety of quantitative and qualitative data obtained.

EMAS hand pump and bailer technologies yielded a mixed level of performance based on physical, chemical, and bacteriological water quality measurements in the shallow wells of the study environment. The technologies generally satisfied international guidelines and expected ranges based on chemical and physical parameters such as conductivity, TDS, and turbidity (with 57% of samples under 5 NTU). EMAS hand pumps demonstrated excellent bacteriological water quality with all samples indicating undetectable levels of E.coli, while bailers had a fair performance with 83% of samples falling into a range signifying intermediate to no associated health risk.

Interview data demonstrated that the introduction of hand augered wells significantly improved household water access in the study area based on users considerations by providing a reliable water drinking water alternative with adequate quantities of water perceived to be clean. Furthermore, the overall sustainability analysis found EMAS hand pump and bailer technologies to be effective and appropriate, with bailer systems considered particularly suitable for applications in similar remote areas with high groundwater tables due to low costs, minimal materials, and a simplistic design. Ultimately, this study yielded specific recommendations to improve the sustainability and maximize the benefits of these self-supply technologies in the ÑöKribo area of Panama and similar locations, with emphasis on the development strategy adopted while implementing these systems.

Evaluation of Hand Augered Well Technologies’ Capacity to Improve Access to Water in Coastal Ngöbe Communities in Panama MSc thesis submitted to University of South Florida 2014

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Author: Hayman, S. K.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: University of South Florida
Institution: College of Engineering

In Panama, the indigenous Ngöbe people in the ÑöKribo coastal area are a group disproportionately affected by a lack of improved access to drinking water and challenges to the feasibility of piped gravity fed water systems that typically serve the rest of the country. An NGO aiming to ameliorate this situation introduced two improved groundwater supply technologies to the region: bailers and EMAS hand pumps. This study assesses the comparative performance of these systems while evaluating the respective performances of existing water sources, using the wide variety of quantitative and qualitative data obtained.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

The SIASAR Initiative An Information System for More Sustainable Rural Water and Sanitation Services

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Author: PENA, L., MICHAUD, D., and J. BIAU
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution:

The Rural Water and Sanitation Information System (SIASAR) is an innovative platform designed to monitor the development and performance of rural water supply and sanitation (WSS) services. Through this simple tool, data collection and analysis becomes more accessible, more precise, and comparable across countries. The system generates performance indicators that are aggregated at several geographic levels. SIASAR automatically produces rankings and summary reports that detail the performance of communities, infrastructure systems, service providers, and technical assistance providers.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

EMAS Household Water Supply Technologies in Bolivia Increasing Access to Low-Cost Water Supplies in Rural Areas

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Author: MACCARTHY, M.F, BUCKINGHAM, J.W. & MIHELCIC, J.R
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This publication provides background on select EMAS household water supply technologies to the wider sector audience. It assesses and presents experiences with these technologies as used in Bolivia. The document provides: (1) an overview of EMAS household water supply technologies (specifically the EMAS Pump, a percussion-jetting-rotation manual drilling method, and rainwater harvesting systems) and of EMAS’s approach to im-proving water supply, and (2) an independent assessment of these EMAS technologies as used in Bolivia. Reference is given to other available resources related to EMAS technologies, including EMAS training videos that are available on the internet.

RWSN Handpump Survey 2013 Summary of Findings

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Rural Water Supply Network

Manual pumps have been used for centuries but this simple technology remains the mainstay of rural water supplies in many countries. The Handpump Technology Network (which later became RWSN) was set up in 1992 to promote collaboration and standardisation so that handpumps could provide more reliable and better quality rural water services.

This survey is aimed at practitioners in government, NGOs, private sector and development partners who are directly involved in rural water service implementation, or who are involved in the procurement of handpumps or spare parts (as either a buyer or seller).

Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Adaptation in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Nicaragua Environment & Water Resources Occasional Paper Series

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

Climate change is at the top of the development agenda in Central America. This region, together with the Caribbean, is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change in Latin America. Climate change is manifesting itself through higher average temperatures and more frequent droughts that result in higher water stress, and through the rising frequency of extreme weather events such as tropical storms, hurricanes, floods and landslides, all of which pose significant challenges in the rural water supply and sanitation sector. The paper starts with a review of the historic data on temperature and precipitation trends in Central America and particularly at the regional level in Nicaragua. The data reveal a clear trend of the growing climate variability, increased water stress for crops, and greater frequency of extreme weather events. The rising intensity and frequency of ex-treme weather events is among the most critical risks to the region's development agenda, and they translate into high economic losses. This paper examines the impacts and implications of potential climate change on water resources in Nicaragua and makes key recommendations to integrate climate change and rural water supply and sanitation policies and programs in a way that increase resilience to current and future climate conditions.
DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Rural Water for All - The river may be wide, but it can be crossed Final Report April 2012

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Author: DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

6th World Water Forum in Marseille 2012
Target and Solutions Group 1.1.2: Sustainable Access to Safe Water for the Global Rural Population
In this report, you will learn more about the vibrant activities, as well as challenges and ideas for accelerating access to water supplies in rural areas. This work is set within the context of guaranteed access to water for all and the Human Right to Water.

Educación de Agua Manual del Estudiante / Manual de Maestro

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Author: AGUAYUDA
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: Aguayuda, Inc.
Institution:

Este manual está diseñado para ser utilizado como una guía de entrenamiento para profesores, líderes comunitarios y otros interesados en enseñarles a sus comunidades sobre la educación de agua.
Este manual contiene 8 temas diferentes. Cada tema tiene un desglose del plan de lección que puede incluir lo siguiente cuando sea pertinente:
- Preparación requerida
- Procedimiento paso a paso de la lección incluyendo ejercicios
- Afiches
- Puntos claves
Este manual les proveerá a los profesores la información y guía necesaria para conducir los talleres de educación de agua para la comunidad.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

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