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Local Government and Rural Water Services that last: a way forward Rural Water Supply Reality Check

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Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

This paper is a synthesis of the major themes discussed during the local government e-discussion held during May 2015, which included 75 contributions from 58 people presenting experiences in English, French and Spanish and cases from 43 different countries from across the globe. Each week focused on a specific theme. Dedicated week facilitators introduced the theme in the beginning of the week, led the discussion during the week and summarised the main discussion points at the end of the week. The paper highlights the discussed role local government can and does play in ensuring sustainable water service provision, the challenges that local government is facing in fulfilling these roles and responsibilities, and the opportunities for overcoming these challenges.

Proceedings of the 7th RWSN Forum 29 Nov - 2 Dec 2016, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

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Author: FUREY, S. G. (editor)
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

The 2016 Rural Water Supply Network Forum in Abidjan was the first global gathering to consider the practical challenge of how everyone worldwide can get access to safe, affordable water by 2030. It was also the first RWSN Forum to take place in a francophone country, in the 25 years since the creation of the network.
The Forum gathered 467 rural water sector practitioners from over 300 organisations from 64 countries in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe, in a bilingual (English/French) four day event. It was opened by the Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, Mr Daniel Kaplan Duncan. We were joined by HE State Minster James Dengchol Tot, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia, as well as a delegation from AMCOW.

This Forum proceedings compiles all peer-reviewed materials. Separate downloads and links to the films can be found at: https://rwsn7.net/content/

Community management of water points: more problem than solution? RWSN Dgroups discussion synthesis

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Author: Naughton, M.
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat
Institution: RWSN

This note summarizes some of the broad points of a June 2017 RWSN blog written by Dr Ellie Chowns on communitybased management (CBM) and the ensuing discussion on the RWSN Sustainable Services DGroup, to which many RWSN members contributed .

CBM is the prevalent management model for rural water supply. So what are the issues?
• Lack of accountability: Community management enables government officials and donors alike to abdicate responsibility for ensuring long-term sustainable water services.
• Inefficiency and lack of sustainability: Preventive maintenance is almost never done, repairs are often slow and sub-standard, and committees are unable to collect and save funds.
• Disempowerment: CBM reinforces existing community power relations, thereby breeding conflict rather than strengthening social capital.
• Lack of scalability and dependence on external support: The CBM model has never reliably worked at any scale but is continued due to a lack of viable, or proven alternative. One can always find 'successful' case studies of where it has worked fantastically well – but these tend to be isolated systems, reliant on constant

Effective Joint Sector Reviews for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) A Study and Guidance - 2016

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Author: DANERT, K, FUREY, S, MECHTA, M and GUPTA, S
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: World Bank
Institution: World Bank

This is the first consolidated and referenced multicountry study of Water or Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Joint Sector Reviews (JSRs). The study report and associated Learning Note and Poster provide an understanding of JSR processes and practical guidance on how to introduce and improve them. The study sets out a methodology in the form of visual checklists to reflect and take stock of WASH JSR processes. This could also form the foundation for subsequent cross-country comparisons of the JSR process.

The publications provide an analysis of JSRs as well as practical guidance on how to introduce and effectively manage them. The initial focus of the work was on JSRs in fragile states. However, the contested definitions of a fragile state, arbitrary thresholds as well as the realization that there are common issues with respect to JSRs in nonfragile countries led to a widening of the scope of countries studied. Notably, all countries included are considerably donor dependant for WASH. The study considered 25 countries, and found that between 2001 and 2015, WASH JSRs had taken place in 19 of them.

Note that these documents are review copies.

Wider Asia and Pacific Regional Learning Event on Service Delivery Approach to Rural Water Supply Presentations

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Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

The RWSN Asia-Pacific Learning event was held in Bangkok, hosted by The World Bank, SNV and WaterAid Australia. 57 delegates from 14 governments attended to share knowledge and expertise on rural water services.

Rainwater Harvesting in Thailand: Learning from the World Champions RWSN Field Note 2016-1

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Author: Matthias Saladin
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This field note provides an overview and analysis of the historic developments of promoting Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) in Thailand between 1980 and 2015. Based on literature reviews and interviews with stakeholders a series of factors were identified which made the promotion of DRWH in Thailand an exceptionally successful example of diffusion of innovations. Among the key factors identified were policies, market structure, pre-existing habits, affordability, supply chain and climate. No single factor was decisive but several of them occurring simultaneously made it possible for an enabling environment to form and make the initiative flourish even after government funding ran out (most of the Thai Jars, which are most commonly used for rainwater storage, were actually delivered through the private sector and paid by the consumers).
In spite of its large-scale success, the Thai Jar Experience is not a blueprint for replication elsewhere but points out to the importance of cultural and economic aspects, as well as to an enabling environment in general.

Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services Partnering with the Private Sector

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Author: Menzies I.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: WSP
Institution: The World Bank

The objective of this Guidance Note is to offer practical, experience-based guidance to those considering or currently
engaging in PPP in the water sector, and to provide a basic understanding of water PPPs and the PPP cycle to better
inform dialogue with governments that are considering PPP arrangements.

It builds on the experience of WSP in supporting PPP reforms in developing countries, especially through the domestic private sector. Key stakeholders in this dialogue include government at all levels, service providers, policy makers, customers, civil society, and professionals.

Many water PPP engagements in developing countries are more domestically oriented and at a smaller scale than international transactions. This Note outlines a rationale and approach for launching a water sector PPP so that government leaders and private sector providers can have informed discussions about the path forward should they choose to explore this approach in their countries.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established Dgroups.org as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

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Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Rainwater Harvesting: harnessing the storm Briefing Note on the RAIN-RWSN webinar series 2014

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RAIN

This 4 page briefing note summarises the key message from the RAIN-RWSN webinars of 2014, which included examples from Honduras, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Mali, Uganda, Somalia, Madagascar and Nepal.

How Three Handpumps Revolutionised Rural Water Supplies A brief history of the India Mark II/III, Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump

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Author: BAUMANN, E. and S. G. FUREY
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

The India Mark II/III, the Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump are three of the most successful and widespread handpump designs in the world. Over the last quarter of a century, hundreds of thou-sands, if not millions, have been built and installed in wells and boreholes around the world.

RWSN Handpump Survey 2013 Summary of Findings

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Rural Water Supply Network

Manual pumps have been used for centuries but this simple technology remains the mainstay of rural water supplies in many countries. The Handpump Technology Network (which later became RWSN) was set up in 1992 to promote collaboration and standardisation so that handpumps could provide more reliable and better quality rural water services.

This survey is aimed at practitioners in government, NGOs, private sector and development partners who are directly involved in rural water service implementation, or who are involved in the procurement of handpumps or spare parts (as either a buyer or seller).

Engaging Non-state Providers in Rural Water Supply Services Documentation of Experiences in India

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

Taking an integrated approach to the country's rural water supply issues, Government of India's (GoI's) National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) focusses on the key aspects of source and system sustainability. System sustainability is inextricably linked to both technical and financial aspects of operations of rural water supply schemes. A key plank of NRDWP's approach as well as that of the sector reform project that preceded it is the devolution of Operations and Maintenance (O&M) functions, particularly related to distribution at the village level, to Gram Panchayats (GPs), or local government entities, through the formation of Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs). However, the lack of substantive community engagement in planning and implementation of schemes as well as capacity constraints in GPs has limited the spread and implementation of this approach. As reported in a recent study for the Planning Commission (PC, 2010), only a fourth of GPs surveyed reported VWSCs and less than one percent of the respondents were aware of the VWSCs' existence.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Water use master plan

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Author: M. Bhatta
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher:
Institution: Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation

A water use master plan supports the development of integrated water resources at the local level; all stakeholders, including disadvantaged groups, take part in the plan.

A water use master plan (WUMP) is a holistic, participatory, and inclusive planning process that takes an integrated approach to the management of water resources and uses at the village level. The WUMP specifies the total water budget for its planning unit, the village development committee (VDC), and explores potential uses for it. It empowers marginalized groups to claim their rights to an equitable share of water within and between communities. The WUMP also helps local bodies with annual and periodic planning and project prioritization.

Rural Water for All - The river may be wide, but it can be crossed Final Report April 2012

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Author: DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

6th World Water Forum in Marseille 2012
Target and Solutions Group 1.1.2: Sustainable Access to Safe Water for the Global Rural Population
In this report, you will learn more about the vibrant activities, as well as challenges and ideas for accelerating access to water supplies in rural areas. This work is set within the context of guaranteed access to water for all and the Human Right to Water.

Providing a basic level of water and sanitation services that last: COST BENCHMARKS WASHCost Infosheet 1

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Author: WASHCOST
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: IRC
Institution: WASHCOST

This Infosheet provides an overview of the minimum benchmarks for costing sustainable basic services in developing countries.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Private Sector Provision of Rural Water Services A desk study for Water for People

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Author: Foster
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: Water for People
Institution:

Community-based management remains the dominant approach to rural water supplies in Africa, Asia and Latin
America, though private sector provision is growing in importance

Self-supply offers a low-cost way to expand privately-managed supplies at a household level, though, with the notable exception of Zimbabwe, few formal initiatives have been scaled up beyond a pilot stage

Despite being the most common mode of rural water supply, handpumps are rarely managed by the private sector

Privately operated decentralised water treatment kiosks have emerged over the last decade (chiefly in India), though at this early stage have captured only a small share of the rural water market

Operation of piped schemes serving small towns is the most common modality of private sector involvement in rural water supplies

Full recovery of capital costs through user fees appears to be rare, particularly in rural Africa, thus widespread capital investment by private enterprises and entrepreneurs remains unlikely without external subsidies

Low Cost Handpumps RWSN Field Note 2011-3

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Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Groundwater supplies provide a significant proportion of rural dwellers in the developing world with access to a safe drinking water supply and will continue to do so in the near future. With the emergence of Self Supply and its increasing acceptance, low-cost handpumps have a role to play. Twenty five years ago the emphasis was on completely enclosed pumps (for drinking water only) to avoid the contamination of the well. Over the last 10 years, cheaper and simpler pump designs have become more acceptable. This development has been strongly influ-enced by the general recognition of the self-supply approach.

This guidance note points out the strengths and limitations of a number of low cost pumps. It provides an overview of the appli-cation, technical details, materials used, installation and mainte-nance, manufacturing requirements and costs of several low cost pumps, including information on the numbers installed and locations.

Supporting Rural Water Supply Moving towards a Service Delivery Approach

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Author: LOCKWOOD, H. and SMITS, S.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Practical Action Publishing Ltd.
Institution: IRC/Aguaconsult

Collectively, billions of dollars have been invested in the provision of rural water supply systems in developing countries over the past three decades. This period has also seen an evolution in thinking and practice around the approaches to delivering water supply to rural populations. We have moved from supply-driven centralised government programming to more demand-driven approaches, based on the philosophy of community participation with community-based management emerging as the principal management vehicle from the 1980s onwards in most countries. In more recent years there has been a call to build on community management with more structured systems of post-construction support and the increasing involvement of local private operators. Global monitoring results tell us that progress is being made and that even including population growth, we are increasing the rate of coverage in many, but not all, countries at a pace that will meet the Millennium Development Goals.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

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