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“What is the current wisdom on the best way to manage cash reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?” RWSN Discussion Synthesis

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

This document is a synthesis of an online discussion that took place in June 2014 on Dgroups (Management & Support Community) and on the "WSP-RWSN Webinar Discussions" LinkedIn group in response to the following question:

“In Tajikistan a multi-village piped water scheme is successfully collecting user fees from households. This has created a new problem: a sizable reserve. This would seem to be in line with the object of the tariff, however for covering the costs of a big item that may need replacing in the next 20 years or so this raises a challenge: there is increasing pressure to use those reserves in a more productive way (and some less productive ways) sooner. There is also the risk that inflation will mean that a good amount of money today will not be worth the same in 10-20 years when it is needed for a big capital expenditure. From WASHcost and other work, what is the current wisdom on the best way to manage reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?”

المقررة الخاصة للأمم المتحدة المعنية بحق الإنسان في الحصول على مياه الشرب المأمونة وخدمات الصرف الصح

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Author: DE ALBUQUERQUE, C.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation
Institution: UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation

This Handbook is the product of six years of work by the first UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights to water and sanitation. It explains the meaning and legal obligations that arise from these rights, translating the often complex technical and legal language into accessible information.

This Handbook clarifies the meaning of the human rights to water and sanitation, explains the obligations that arise from these rights and provides guidance on implementing the human rights to water and sanitation. It also shares some examples of good practice, shows how these rights are being implemented and explores how States can be held to account for delivering on their obligations. Finally, the handbook provides a series of checklists, so that readers can assess how far they are complying with the human rights to water and sanitation.

The Handbook is primarily for governments at all levels, donors and national regulatory bodies. It provides information that will also be useful to other local, regional and international stakeholders, including civil society, service providers and human rights organisations.

The Handbook is presented in nine booklets, each of which addresses a particular area of activity:
1: Introduction
2: Frameworks (Legislative, regulatory and policy frameworks)
3: Financing (Financing, budgeting and budget-tracking)
4: Services (Planning processes, service providers, service levels and settlements)
5: Monitoring
6: Justice (Access to justice)
7: Principles (Non-discrimination, equality, information, participation, sustainability)
8: Checklists
9: Sources (Glossary, Bibliography, Index)

Booklets 2-7 contain checklists for the State and other actors to assess whether the State is complying with the requirements of the human rights to water and sanitation.

Zimbabwe's Upgraded Family Well Programme

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Author: P. MORGAN
Year of Publishing: 2006
Publisher: n/a
Institution: n/a

Even before Zimbabwe’s National Upgraded Well Programme began in the late 1980’s, one million people drew their water daily from both communal and family owned shallow wells. The number of families owning some sort of well or water hole in their back yard or vegetable garden was estimated at 100 000 at that time. Thus the shallow well concept was well established as a source of water in the rural areas of Zimbabwe.

Whilst some of these wells were adequately protected, most were either unprotected or poorly protected and had the tendency to become heavily contaminated. This was partly because of rainwater run-off but also due to contaminated buckets and ropes laying in unhygienic conditions at the well head, on the ground, and being reintroduced into the well. Many were dangerous, especially for children, because they were poorly lined, if at all, and had little or no protection at the well head. Possibly because they were regarded more as a threat to health than a benefit, these family owned back yard wells did not appear on any inventory of rural water sources, and were not regarded seriously by Government or other organisations at the start of the national rural water supply programme which began in 1980 with the help of external donor support. And yet in some areas over 30% of the population use shallow wells on a daily basis. The National Master Plan for rural water development, written in the early 1980’s mentioned them only in passing. The emphasis at that time, was to serve the rural people with a communally based hand pump supply.

Zambia - Report on Baseline Survey of Household Waterpoints Nchelenge and Chienge Districts - July 2008

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Author: MADAVINE, T.
Year of Publishing: 2008
Publisher: Engineers Without Borders Canada/DAPP
Institution: UNICEF Zambia

This study is focussing on Nchelenge and Chienge Districts and is based on the information collected during the field surveys performed in April and May 2008 by Development Aid from People to People (DAPP). DAPP is the implementing non-governmental organization of the Self Supply Program in these two districts.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Zambia - National Guidelines for Sustainable Operation and Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Rural Areas (2007)

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Author: MLGH
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: Ministry of Local Gov. and Housing (Zambia)
Institution:

Over the past 20 years, the government of Zambia has invested in new rural water supply facilities throughout the country. Unfortunately, periodic reviews have indicated that a number of these water points fall into disuse just a few years after their commissioning. These guidelines have been published by the Ministry of Local Government and Housing to guide the sector and harmonise O&M practices.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Wider Asia and Pacific Regional Learning Event on Service Delivery Approach to Rural Water Supply Presentations

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Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

The RWSN Asia-Pacific Learning event was held in Bangkok, hosted by The World Bank, SNV and WaterAid Australia. 57 delegates from 14 governments attended to share knowledge and expertise on rural water services.

Why wells should only be dug in a specific period of the year? Understanding one of the main causes of wells’ drying in Sierra Leone, through an analysis of a water table movements.

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 0000
Publisher:
Institution:

A survey conducted by Inter Aide in 2010-2011 in 3 districts of Sierra Leone has highlighted that among 2028 hand-dug wells visited, 45% of them were not delivering water permanently all year long.

Who is going to drill the African Boreholes?

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Author: ROBINSON, A.,
Year of Publishing: 2006
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: WSP, Skat

Private drillers form an essential segment of the borehole drilling sector in Africa. More needs to be known about their abilities and the contribution they can make. Case studies of entrepreneurial drilling companies in four African countries are used to illustrate business strategies and common constraints, and possible ways forward.

Where does the water flow? Roads runoff, soil erosion, groundwater, livelihoods and poverty alleviation in Tigray, Ethiopia

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Author: Welle, K., R. Alba, J. Demenge, A. Addisu and K. Manjur
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Development Studies, University of Mekelle, Meta Meta Research
Institution:

The study is part of the UpGro project. Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro). Based on fieldwork conducted in 2014 in the semi‐arid region of Tigray, Ethiopia, this report explores the physical and socio‐economic impacts of road related surface and groundwater flows – and how people cope with and adapt to them. We argue that two distinctive objectives of improving road connectivity and improving water availability for irrigation – are linked and could be served by the same infrastructure, which we call multifunctional roads.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

West Africa Water Initiative (WAWI) Hand Drilling in Niger - Experts Drilling Workshop Report for ARD Prepared by EnterpriseWorks/VITA

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Author: DANERT, K., MAMADOU, I. and J. NAUGLE
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: EnterpriseWorks/VITA
Institution:

This report provides a summary of the practical outcomes of a hand drilling experts’ workshop held in June 2007 in Niger. It also provides an indication of the potential for hand-drilled wells in Niger, with a focus on the Zinder Region. The workshop was funded by the USAID West African Water Initiative (WAWI).

Wells Construction Hand Dug and Hand Drilled

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Author: BRUSH, R. E.
Year of Publishing: 1979
Publisher: Peace Corps
Institution: Information Collection & Exchange

This manual is for development works involved in the construction of wells to supply water to a local population for personal consumption. It has been designed to help field workers with little or no construction experience to assist communities in: planning and designing a well appropriate to the needs of the local population; assessing the advantages or disadvantages of locally available construction materials.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Well Digging A Guide to the Construction and Protection of Hand Dug Wells

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Author: LAVER, S.
Year of Publishing: 1980
Publisher:
Institution: GTZ, Blair Research Laboratory

This book is written in a non-technical language and is tells the reader how to dig a shallow well, protect a shallow well and improve a traditional well.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Well Construction Manual

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Author: LJSSS
Year of Publishing: 1987
Publisher: Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services
Institution: Lanka Jathika Sarvodaya Shramadana Sangamaya

This manual is a hand tool for the villagers and the workers who are actually doing the job of digging wells.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Webinar Series 2014 (Water Point Mapping & Monitoring)

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution:

Webinar - 30th September 2014 - focus on Malawi - Presentations reflect on water point mapping practices, tools and technologies as well as policies. The webinar explores how the monitoring evolved, how data was, and is collected, analysed and used by a range of stakeholders. The three presentations are:

1) Steve Sugden, Water for People - What we did in Salima District in 2002
2) Thanasius Sitolo, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development – Water Point Mapping in Malawi since 2002
3) Sydney Byrns, Engineers without Borders - NGO support to government-led monitoring in Malawi

Webinar Series 2014 (UNICEF- RWSN) on Manual Drilling/Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel Five Interactive webinars, which aim to promote South-South sharing. Une séries de cinq (5) Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel.

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Author: DANERT K
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNICEF/RWSN
Institution: UNICEF/RWSN

Manual Drilling has now been successfully implemented in many countries, with several taking it to scale. The webinars will provide participants with an opportunity to learn from the successes and challenges experienced from different organisations and trigger discussion, with time for questions and exchange of perspectives.
Webinars are in both French and English, with corresponding summaries also being made available in both languages.

Le but est de partager vos expériences et contribuer au débat dans la région Sud
Beaucoup de pays ont achevé de succès dans leur entretien du programme de forage manuel. Plusieurs de ces pays maintenant mettent à l’échelle le programme. Les sessions auront deux parties. Dans la première partie, vous apprendrez des succès et des difficultés dont UNICEF et ses partenaires font face à en ménageant un programme de forage manuel. Dans la deuxième partie, vous êtes invitez à poser des questions et faire des commentaires. Les sessions sont en Anglais et en Français; aussi que les matériaux des présentations et des discussions.

Webinar Series 2014 (RAIN - RWSN) Interactive webinars that aim promote sharing of knowledge and experience in rainwater harvesting

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RAIN/RWSN
Institution: RAIN/RWSN

The idea is simple. There is hardly a place in the world where it never rains. Rainwater belongs to everyone. And the methods to collect, store, use and reuse rainwater (to ‘harvest’ rainwater) are easy to apply. So why not spread those methods around the world?

RAIN Foundation and RWSN are collaborating on increasing understanding and uptake of rainwater harvesting, and connecting with people who are looking for help in implementing these systems.

This series of webinars show cases some of the innovative approaches being undertaken around the world.

Webinar 2013 - Equity and inclusion in WASH: removing barriers to access Practical tools for analysis and problem-solving

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Author: JONES, H.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: WEDC, WaterAid

Hazel Jones
RWSN webinar 8th May 2013

1. Introduction to the learning materials – content and format

2. How they can be used – examples

3. What next? Further developments and possibilities

Webinar 2013 (WSP-RWSN): Financial Sustainability 24 September 2013

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Author: LEGER, C. and KLUSTE, A.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: WSP-RWSN

Presentations from Christophe Leger (Vergnet Hydro) and Dr Amah Kluste (UNICEF Burundi)

Webinar 2012 (UNICEF-RWSN ) on Cost Effective Boreholes December 2012

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Author: DANERT, K
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher:
Institution: RWSN-UNICEF

A webinar was held on the 11th December, hosted by UNICEF, on the topic of “Groundwater Matters: Drinking Water for Rural People”. After an introduction by Dr Cecilia Scharp of UNICEF, the audience were invited to ask questions to a panel comprising Mr John Chilton (International Association of Hydrogeologist), Dr Peter Harvey (UNICEF, East and Southern Africa), Dr Alice Aureli (UNESCO) and Mr Thato Setloboko (Government of Botswana), moderated by Dr Kerstin Danert.

You can view the recording of the webinar here: https://unicef200.webex.com/unicef200/ldr.php?AT=pb&SP=MC&rID=117842737&rKey=c03106a292416a2e

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