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A vision for achieving sustainable rural water services for all RWSN Field Note 2011-9

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Author: CARTER, R. & LOCKWOOD, H.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN Executive Steering Committee

This document sets out the Rural Water Supply Network’s broad vision for the next two decades by defining what we believe are the core principles upon which reliable, safe and equitable services can be provided. The articulation of this vision will be different in each country and be determined by local contexts and priorities. Consequently the purpose of this document is to provide national policy makers, practitioners, development partners and water consumers with an overarching framework which can help them consider their own respective roles and approaches to the provision of water supply services to rural populations.

Une vision pour des services d’eau durables pour tous en milieu rural RWSN Field Note 2011-10

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Author: Carter, R et H. Lockwood
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Comité de pilotage exécutif

Durant les trois dernières décennies, des sommes substantielles ont été investies dans les services d’approvisionnement en eau des pays à bas revenus. Globalement, environ 700 millions d’habitants ruraux ont ainsi gagné un accès à des services d’approvisionnement améliorés en eau entre 1990 et 2008. De grands progrès ont été accomplis et de nombreuses leçons ont été tirées pendant cette période. Cependant, un nombre équivalent de personnes non desservies subsiste, et une proportion importante de celles que l’on considère comme desservies font face à des pannes et à des défaillances des services.

Accélérer l’auto-approvisionnement: Résumé des progrès accomplis dans l’introduction d’une nouvelle approche RWSN Field Note 2011-6

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Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Cela devient évident que les capacités des ménages, leurs priorités, et la force que confère la propriété effective constituent déjà,pour les habitants ruraux, d’importants facteurs incitatifs pour méliorer leur approvisionnement en eau par leurs propres moyens (auto-approvisionnement). Les évaluations et les projets pilotes d’accélération de l’auto-approvisionnement conduits en Éthiopie, au Mali, en Ouganda et en Zambie montrent qu’encourager l’investissement des ménages peut véritablement constituer une option viable, à côté des services d’eau conventionnels, communau-taires et largement subventionnés. L’auto-approvisionnement, et notamment son accélération, peut aider les gouvernements et les planificateurs à atteindre les cibles des OMD en matière d’accès à l’eau potable, et in fine l’accès universel, en particulier dans les zones difficiles à desservir de manière appropriée au niveau com-munautaire.

Accélérer l’auto-approvisionnement Une étude de cas de l’Ouganda 2010 RWSN Field Note 2010-5

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Author: Danert K. and S. Sutton
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

En Ouganda, le Ministère de l’Eau et de l’Environnement, ainsi que de nombreuses ONG, ont plusieurs années d’expérience dans la promotion de la collecte d’eau de pluie pour usage do-mestique et dans le pilotage de projets d’amélioration par les ménages de puits creusés à la main. Il apparaît que de nom-breux ménages sont capables et désireux d’investir dans l’amélioration de leur système d’approvisionnement en eau. Cette note de terrain explique comment ces investissements ont été encouragés entre la fin des années 1990 et 2010, et expose quelques enjeux principaux, alors que le pays élabore un Plan d’orientation pour accélérer l’accès fiable à de l’eau potable par l’auto-approvisionnement en Ouganda. Ces enjeux comprennent l’élaboration de directives claires, la formation du secteur privé et la mise en relation avec des mécanismes de financement et de planification.

Filières durables d’approvisionnement pour les services d’eau en milieu rural RWSN Field Note 2011-7

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Author: Harvey, P.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Cette note de terrain explique pourquoi les approches actuelles de développement des filières d'approvisionnement en pièces de rechange n'ont pas donné de résultats. Elle présente un ensemble de solutions pour assurer la disponibilité des pièces de rechange pour l'exploitation et l’entretien des systèmes d’approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural grâce à des filières d'approvisionnement intégrées.

Managing Water Locally An essential dimension of community water development

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Author: ICE, OXFAM, WATERAID
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Institution of Civil Engineers, Oxfam, WaterAid
Institution:

This publication is the outcome of a partnership between the Institution of Civil Engineers in Britain and two international development agencies: Oxfam and WaterAid. In 2009-10 these organisations jointly organised eight public presentations by a mix of academics and practitioners from three continents to an open audience of interested professionals.

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Challenges in Latin America for the Next Decade Lessons from the “Cusco+10” International Seminar

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Author: PEARCE-OROZ, G.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: Water and Sanitation Program

Slightly more than a decade ago, in 1999, the World Bank held a seminar-workshop entitled Improving the Sustainability of Water and Sanitation Projects in the Rural Area in Cusco, Peru, for the purpose of identifying best practices in the rural area. One of the key issues during this seminar was understanding the scope and contribution of a demand-based approach in relation to the sustainability of services.

Ten years later, in May 2010, an opportunity was provided to review the lessons learned, the progress achieved, and the new challenges for water and rural sanitation within the framework of the seminar Challenges of Rural Water and Sanitation after a Decade, also held in Cusco.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Supporting Rural Water Supply Moving towards a Service Delivery Approach

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Author: LOCKWOOD, H. and SMITS, S.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Practical Action Publishing Ltd.
Institution: IRC/Aguaconsult

Collectively, billions of dollars have been invested in the provision of rural water supply systems in developing countries over the past three decades. This period has also seen an evolution in thinking and practice around the approaches to delivering water supply to rural populations. We have moved from supply-driven centralised government programming to more demand-driven approaches, based on the philosophy of community participation with community-based management emerging as the principal management vehicle from the 1980s onwards in most countries. In more recent years there has been a call to build on community management with more structured systems of post-construction support and the increasing involvement of local private operators. Global monitoring results tell us that progress is being made and that even including population growth, we are increasing the rate of coverage in many, but not all, countries at a pace that will meet the Millennium Development Goals.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Effectiveness of In-Line Chlorination of Gravity Flow Water Supply in Two Rural Communities in Panama MSc Thesis Academic Year 2010/11

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Author: OMER, K. D.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher:
Institution: University of South Florida

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Professionalising Community-Based Management for Rural Water Services Briefing Note No. 2

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Author: LOCKWOOD, H. and A. LE GOUAIS
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Institution: Triple-S

Community-based management has long been established as the principal service delivery model for providing water to rural populations in developing countries. But this model has limitations: voluntary water committees are responsible for maintaining water systems, but lack legal recognition, skills, and accountability to do so. Inadequate external monitoring and support lead to poor technical and financial management of water services, and ultimately to system breakdowns and service failure. The professionalisation of community based-management means moving away from the voluntary provision of water services towards a philosophy of service provision, and working to agreed standards, with greater transparency, accountability and efficiency.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Service Delivery Indicators and Monitoring to Improve Sustainability of Rural Water Supplies Briefing Note No. 1

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Author: LOCKWOOD, H., LE GOUAIS, A., SCHOUTEN, T., VERDEMATO, T. and P. MORIARTY
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Institution: Triple-S

Current approaches to monitoring rural water supply often focus on coverage—measured in terms of numbers of systems built and people served. But the reality is that many systems break down within a few years of installation due to lack of proper support for operations and maintenance and people who were counted as served are left without a reliable service.

Good monitoring systems feed into local level planning and decision-making. They are realistically designed with existing resource constraints in mind and do not rely on short-term project funding.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Consultancy Services: Quality Assurance of UNICEF Drilling Programmes for Boreholes in Malawi Final Report

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Author: ANSCOMBE, J.R.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development
Institution: UNICEF

Sustainability of Water Supply Systems in Kenya Ex Post Assessments of 100 water supply systems constructed/rehabilitated by Welthungerhilfe between 2006-2009

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Author: BEHRENS-SHAH, P.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Welthungerhilfe
Institution:

With this study Welthungerhilfe intends to gain knowledge of technologically, socially, economically and culturally determined reasons affecting the success or failure of water supply structures in Kenya - one of Welthungerhilfe’s largest WASH-programme countries. 100 Welthungerhilfe water supply systems2, most between 4-5 years of age, were analysed between February and April 2011, at the end of the dry season, a time when people in the rural areas are most dependent on a reliable water supply.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Learning Alliances in WASHTech WASHTech - Deliverable 6.1 / D4

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Author: IRC, CREPA, TREND and NETWAS (U)
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: WASHTech
Institution: EU FP7

This document describes the theoretical underpinnings of the learning alliance approach and provides a framework for assessing the actual progress and challenges in implementing this approach in WASHTech. It is intended as a working document that will be periodically updated. A checklist for reviewing progress and gathering evidence is provided at the end of the document.

Development Policies & Practice - October 2011 Drinking Water Access

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Author: NAULET, F.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: GRET
Institution:

Using Small Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries: A Strategic—Not Automatic!—Choice

While small local enterprises in developing countries defi nitely have a role to play in expanding access to drinking water, they must not, for all that, be seen as the next “solution” that some are constantly seeking. The diversity among these actors requires one to carefully examine their characteristics, operating rationales and constraints. All these elements need to be taken into account before including these actors in sectoral programs. Recourse to small private entrepreneurs is not a universal cure-all, but under what conditions is it a suitable solution?

Politiques & Pratiques de développement - Octobre 2011 Accès à l’eau potable

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Author: NAULET, F.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: GRET
Institution:

S’il ne fait aucun doute que les petites entreprises locales ont un rôle à jouer dans les pays en développement pour étendre l’accès à l’eau potable, il ne faudrait pas pour autant en faire la nouvelle fi gure du «bon modèle» que d’aucuns recherchent inlassablement. L’hétérogénéité de ces acteurs exige de se pencher précisément sur leurs caractéristiques, leurs logiques d’actions et leurs contraintes: autant d’éléments à prendre en compte avant de les intégrer dans les programmes sectoriels. Si le recours aux petits entrepreneurs privés n’est pas la panacée, dans quelles conditions représente-t-il une solution adaptée?

Multi-Village Pooling Project in Indonesia Handbook for Community-Based Water Supply Organizations

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

The book discusses basic concepts on key topics to managing a small piped water system ideally for up to 1,000 households. It presents tools that can be adapted by Community-Based Water Organizations (CBOs) for use in their operations, such as forms, checklists and procedural guidelines. Illustrative examples have also been compiled from the experiences of the district local governments, support organizations and CBOs operating in East and West Java, who participated in the Multi-Village Pooling (MVP) Project. This toolkit seeks to compile a set of ready resources for organizations supporting Indonesian CBOs and CBOs themselves, which was not previously available despite many years of rural water investment projects. The book introduces fundamental concepts in an easy to-understand way, so that a number of discussions have been simplified. This will give users a basic understanding enough to seek further resources or references or advice from experts, which is encouraged.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Pompes à motricité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne Hand pumps in sub-Saharan Africa

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Author: Frouin, K.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Agence Française de Développement
Institution: AFD/pS-Eau

En Afrique subsaharienne, les principaux modes d’approvisionnement en eau potable en milieu rural sont les puits protégés et les forages équipés d’une pompe à motricité humaine. Pour viser les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement, des efforts doivent être faits pour augmenter le rythme de réalisation des ouvrages hydrauliques, mais aussi pour mettre en place des systèmes de gestion des points d’eau améliorés plus performants et durables.
Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques des pompes à motricité humaine et des principaux facteurs déterminant la pérennité des points d’eau améliorés, le présent guide abordera successivement les principales composantes d’un programme d’hydraulique villageoise : la mobilisation sociale des usagers, l’implantation des points d’eau, l’exécution des forages et le captage des nappes, la fourniture et la pose des pompes à motricité humaine, l’aménagement des points d’eau, la formation des acteurs, et enfin la promotion des comportements hygiéniques. Certaines de ces activités sont à mettre en oeuvre de façon concomitante.
En annexe, le lecteur trouvera des éléments clés devant figurer dans les termes de référence du consultant en charge de l’étude de faisabilité d’un projet d’hydraulique villageoise et dans les termes de référence de l’ingénieur conseil du projet.

AVERTISSEMENT: Il s'agit d'une publication non-RWSN et approbation par RWSN ou l'une de ses organisations membres ne devraient pas être déduite

Conceptual Framework and Instruments Guide for Reduction of Vulnerability in WASH systems

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher:
Institution: SDC

Nicaragua is highly vulnerable to disasters in comparison with other Central American countries. It ranks third among the ten countries in the world that are most affected by extreme weather events that cause damages and losses in human lives, in natural resources and in the livelihoods of he population. It is also the Central American nation that will suffer the greatest decline in precipitation over the next three decades, a decline that will affect both the water sector and food security.

Retrofitting Boreholes Contaminated with Iron in Rural Uganda

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Author: Fader, C.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Caleb T. Fader
Institution: Michigan Technological University

This report describes a remedy for iron contamination employed at 5 wells. The remedy
involved disinfecting the wells with chlorine and replacing iron pump components with
plastic and stainless steel. Iron concentrations in the wells were less than 1 mg/L when
the wells were drilled but ranged from 2.5 to 40 mg/L prior to the remedy. After the
remedy was applied, the total iron concentrations returned to levels below 1 mg/L. The
presence of iron related bacteria was measured in all of these wells using Biological Activity
Reaction Tests. Although IRB are still present in all the wells, the dissolved iron
concentrations remain less than 1 mg/L. This remedy is practical for rural areas because
the work can be performed with only hand tools and costs less than US $850. Because the
source of iron contamination is removed in this approach, substantial follow-up
maintenance is not necessary.

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