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Zimbabwe's Upgraded Family Well Programme

Even before Zimbabwe’s National Upgraded Well Programme began in the late 1980’s, one million people drew their water daily from both communal and family owned shallow wells. The number of families owning some sort of well or water hole in their back yard or vegetable garden was estimated at 100 000 at that time. Thus the shallow well concept was well established as a source of water in the rural areas of Zimbabwe.

Whilst some of these wells were adequately protected, most were either unprotected or poorly protected and had the tendency to become heavily contaminated. This was partly because of rainwater run-off but also due to contaminated buckets and ropes laying in unhygienic conditions at the well head, on the ground, and being reintroduced into the well. Many were dangerous, especially for children, because they were poorly lined, if at all, and had little or no protection at the well head. Possibly because they were regarded more as a threat to health than a benefit, these family owned back yard wells did not appear on any inventory of rural water sources, and were not regarded seriously by Government or other organisations at the start of the national rural water supply programme which began in 1980 with the help of external donor support. And yet in some areas over 30% of the population use shallow wells on a daily basis. The National Master Plan for rural water development, written in the early 1980’s mentioned them only in passing. The emphasis at that time, was to serve the rural people with a communally based hand pump supply. | »

Effective Joint Sector Reviews for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) A Study and Guidance - 2016

This is the first consolidated and referenced multicountry study of Water or Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Joint Sector Reviews (JSRs). The study report and associated Learning Note and Poster provide an understanding of JSR processes and practical guidance on how to introduce and improve them. The study sets out a methodology in the form of visual checklists to reflect and take stock of WASH JSR processes. This could also form the foundation for subsequent cross-country comparisons of the JSR process.

The publications provide an analysis of JSRs as well as practical guidance on how to introduce and effectively manage them. The initial focus of the work was on JSRs in fragile states. However, the contested definitions of a fragile state, arbitrary thresholds as well as the realization that there are common issues with respect to JSRs in nonfragile countries led to a widening of the scope of countries studied. Notably, all countries included are considerably donor dependant for WASH. The study considered 25 countries, and found that between 2001 and 2015, WASH JSRs had taken place in 19 of them.

Note that these documents are review copies. | »

Review of Upgraded Family Well Programme in Makoni & Buhera districts, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe Country Report Zimbabwe

This report aims to present the impact of a programme for the upgrading of traditional wells in rural Zimbabwe. The study focuses on two districts in Manicaland province, Makoni and Buhera, where self-financed improvements through the UFW programme were supported some 20 years ago. The study included extensive dry-season surveys of water-points, interviews with households and with stakeholders at all levels that were conducted between September and October 2015. Water quality samples were taken both from sources (from 50 community water points, from 50 traditional wells and from 100 upgraded family wells) and at point-of-use (200 samples). | »

Review of Self-supply and its support services in African countries Synthesis Report

Over the past decades, in many countries, significant progress has been achieved in improving access to rural water supplies. However, it will be almost impossible to reach universal access by using community supply models alone, as this approach will simply be too costly. For achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and ensuring universal access to water for all, new approaches and a shift in mindset and policies are needed. Supported Self-supply is a very cost effective service delivery approach which is complementary to communal supplies, is aligned with Human Rights principles, supports equity and inclusiveness and achieving several SDGs.
This Synthesis report summarises the results of a UNICEF funded review of supported Self-supply in Zambia and in Zimbabwe which was conducted in 2015 and reflects on findings from discussions at national workshops in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi and from a webinar on supported Self-supply and Human Rights to Water organized by the Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN). | »

Self-Supply as a means of bringing water to the people of Zimbabwe and its relation to the hand pump program.

The concept of “self-supply” as a means of providing water to families (who become responsible for their own supply) is becoming increasingly common in Zimbabwe. However there is nothing new in it. For well over half a century, thousands of families living in the rural areas of Zimbabwe had dug their own wells as a means of providing water for domestic and agricultural use. And many families have built tanks to catch rainwater. Rain water harvesting is another method which could fall under the concept of self-supply. A communal hand pump water supply program to support communities living in the rural areas had also begun in the 1930’s when the Bush Pump, then known as the Murgatroyd pump, after its inventor, first began to provide water in Matabeleland. The hand pump supply, supported by the governments Department of Water, subsequently spread throughout the country. In later years the on site management of the Hand Pump programme was and is managed by the District Development Fund. For the cities and towns, water is supplied through municipal piped water supplies, largely supplied from dams and reservoirs. However many people living in the urban areas also used their own wells and boreholes excavated on their own property. And self-supply in the cities is now becoming common. | »

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