RWSN Resources

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Author Year Downloads Title

Costing and Pricing - A Guide for Water Well Drilling Enterprises RWSN Publication 2014-12

Downloads: 5138

Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN

This field note is written for water well drilling enterprises as well as other agencies which manage, or are involved in drilling projects. Using a step-by-step approach it gives clear guidance on how to cost and price the construction of drilled water wells. It also provides tips on business management with an emphasis of the realities faced in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Once you are familiar with this field note, you will be in a much stronger position to calculate drilling costs, consider prices and deal with business realities.

A Comparative Study on Water Well Drilling Costs in Kenya

Downloads: 3781

Author: DOYEN, J.
Year of Publishing: 2003
Publisher: UNDP-World Bank

This paper presents the main findings of a comparative study on water well drilling costs in Kenya. It outlines the main factors influencing the costs per unit in various geological environments. The study focused primarily on cost factors that can be influenced by geological investigations, well design and construction supervision.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

India Mark Handpump Specifications (Revision 2-2007)

Downloads: 2091

Author: ERPF, K.
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: RWSN/Skat

This RWSN Specification contains a full product definition for: India Mark II Handpump India Mark III Handpump India Mark II, Extra Deep-well Handpump including: Manufacturing processes and inspection, assembly and part drawings, part lists, requireme

Supervising Water Well Drilling A guide for supervisors

Downloads: 2063

Author: ADEKILE, D.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: RWSN/UNICEF

Good supervision of water well drilling is essential for the provision of long-lasting water wells. This guidance note assists geologists and engineers in charge of the supervision of borehole construction as well as project managers. It can be used to prepare for training, and as a manual.
This guide details the responsibilities of the drilling supervisor at the different stages of borehole construction. It explains the actions to be carried out at each stage that will ensure that the driller delivers the borehole as specified in the contract.

Afridev: Handpump Specification (Revision 5-2007)

Downloads: 1791

Author: BAUMANN, E. & KEEN, J.
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

This manual provides detailed specifications and design drawings for the AFRIDEV handpump. The AFRIDEV Deep-well handpump is designed to lift water from depths of 10m to 45m. The AFRIDEV is suitable for boreholes with casing sizes of nominal 100mm, 115mm, 127mm or 150mm internal diameter (4", 4.5", 5" and 6").

The Specification results from work carried out by the UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program in partnership with handpump fieldworkers and development organisations in many countries.

Since the issue of the first AFRIDEV Specification in 1989, the AFRIDEV has become the deepwell VLOM handpump of choice in an increasing number of countries in Africa and Asia.

Webinar Series 2014 (UNICEF- RWSN) on Manual Drilling/Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel Five Interactive webinars, which aim to promote South-South sharing. Une séries de cinq (5) Webinaires sur le sujet de Forage Manuel.

Downloads: 1687

Author: DANERT K
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNICEF/RWSN
Institution: UNICEF/RWSN

Manual Drilling has now been successfully implemented in many countries, with several taking it to scale. The webinars will provide participants with an opportunity to learn from the successes and challenges experienced from different organisations and trigger discussion, with time for questions and exchange of perspectives.
Webinars are in both French and English, with corresponding summaries also being made available in both languages.

Le but est de partager vos expériences et contribuer au débat dans la région Sud
Beaucoup de pays ont achevé de succès dans leur entretien du programme de forage manuel. Plusieurs de ces pays maintenant mettent à l’échelle le programme. Les sessions auront deux parties. Dans la première partie, vous apprendrez des succès et des difficultés dont UNICEF et ses partenaires font face à en ménageant un programme de forage manuel. Dans la deuxième partie, vous êtes invitez à poser des questions et faire des commentaires. Les sessions sont en Anglais et en Français; aussi que les matériaux des présentations et des discussions.

Water Well Guidelines for use in Developing Countries

Downloads: 1615

Author: SCHNEIDER, S. J.
Year of Publishing: 2014

These guidelines are considered minimum requirements for basic protection of the groundwater resource and for the health and safety of those that develop and use the resource. These guidelines are intended to address basic water supply well construction, pumping equipment, and maintenance issues. Water supply wells include wells designed for domestic, municipal, community, industrial, commercial, irrigation and/or livestock water supply use in addition to aquifer storage (injection) and recovery wells.

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015 RWSN Publication 2015-2

Downloads: 1467

Author: DANERT K.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat
Institution: Skat

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours!

Siting of Drilled Water Wells - A Guide for Project Managers RWSN Publication 2014-11

Downloads: 1443

Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN

This field note has been written for managers of water supply programmes and projects. It provides a step by step guide on the siting of drilled water wells. As a first step, the essential requirements for a simple groundwater model are set out, including some basic explanations to help the reader establish a sound understanding of hydrogeology.

Code of Practice for Cost Effective Boreholes British English Version, June 2010

Downloads: 1413

Year of Publishing: 2010
Publisher: RWSN

Sustainable groundwater development is fundamental in order to provide universal access to safe drinking water. This document, The Code of Practice for Cost Effective Boreholes provides a basis for the realisation of economical and sustainable access to safe water. The term “cost-effective” means optimum value for money invested over the long term. Boreholes are drilled to function for a lifespan of 20 to 50 years. Thus, the lowest cost is not always the most cost-effective, particularly if construction quality is compromised to save money. Cheap drilling or poor construction quality can lead to premature failure of the well or contamination of the water supply. Boreholes that are subsequently abandoned by the users are clearly not cost-effective.

The Code of Practice for Cost-Effective Boreholes has been officially endorsed by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR).

Installation & Maintenance Manual for the India Mark II Handpump (Edition 2008)

Downloads: 1334

Author: SKAT
Year of Publishing: 2008
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

The Installation and Maintenance Manual for the India Mark II Handpump is intended to assist all users of this handpump, especially to give a guideline for the installation procedures as also for maintaining the pump including the pump platform.

This document results from several years of work carried out by UNICEF Eritrea in partnership with SKAT – RWSN. Special thanks are given to the staff of the Debub region of Eritrea, especially Mr. Giorghis Tecle; and Mr. Eric Toft and Yodit Hiruy of UNICEF Eritrea.

Suggestions for improvement on the manual are welcomed for future updates and can be sent to Skat– RWSN

Cálculo de Custos e Preço: Guião para Empresas de Furos de Água RWSN Publication No 2012-3

Downloads: 1177

Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: RWSN

Esta nota de campo foi feita para empresas de perfuração de furos de água assim como agências que gerem, ou estão envol-vidas em projectos de perfuração. Usando uma abordagem cuidada, esta dá orientações claras de como são feitas as esti-mativas de custo e preço dos furos de água perfurados.

RWSN Quarterly Newsletters - ENGLISH Archive of current and past newsletters

Downloads: 1122

Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network

RWSN members receive a quarterly email newsletter,which is available in English and French.

PDF versions are posted here, Since 2012, email versions are posted via dgroups (

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion RWSN Publication 2015-1

Downloads: 1075

Author: MacArthur, J.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries).

Procurement and Contract Management of Drilled Well Construction A Guide for Supervisors and Project Managers

Downloads: 1027

Author: ADEKILE, D
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

The high rate of non-functional boreholes in many parts of the world is attributable, in part, to a lack of professionalism in the drilling sector. In order to increase access to a safe and sustainable water supply, competent and experienced drilling contractors must be engaged. Likewise, suitable equipment is needed and experienced consultants are required to supervise construction.
This guidance note assists project managers involved in the provision of groundwater supplies using boreholes. It sets out procurement and contract management procedures that will lead to the engagement of professional groundwater consultants, drilling contractors and suppliers. The publication will enable clients to ensure that they have the know-how to get the expected results out of drilling contracts.

Handpump Data 2009 (ARCHIVE - SEE UPDATE) Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

Downloads: 989

Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: RWSN

Handpump data for selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (2007) Data for: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Banks, B. & S. G. Furey (2016) What’s Working, Where, and for How Long. A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics, GWC/Skat , RWSN, St. Gallen, Switzerland

(see link below)

Professional Water Well Drilling A UNICEF Guidance Note

Downloads: 944

Author: Danert K., Gesti Canuto J.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Unicef

This guidance note provides practical guidance for organisations and individuals that are trying to raise the professionalism of groundwater development in Africa. The guidance note is mainly concerned with rural and small towns’ water supplies but is mindful of the huge challenges faced by supplies in many growing African cities dealing with problems of groundwater quantity and quality.

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21914.64964

Short Course: Drilling Supervision Cost-Effective Boreholes

Downloads: 891

Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

A five-day course for engineers and WASH professionals in Sierra Leone.
The objectives of the course are to:
- understand:
- the importance of effective drilling supervision
- the nature of groundwater occurrence
- the steps and actions required in full time supervision
- the steps and actions required in part time or milestone supervision

- be able to quality assure and certify drilling records
- be able to undertake borehole construction supervision!

How Three Handpumps Revolutionised Rural Water Supplies A brief history of the India Mark II/III, Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump

Downloads: 798

Author: BAUMANN, E. and S. G. FUREY
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

The India Mark II/III, the Afridev and the Zimbabwe Bush Pump are three of the most successful and widespread handpump designs in the world. Over the last quarter of a century, hundreds of thou-sands, if not millions, have been built and installed in wells and boreholes around the world.

EMAS Household Water Supply Technologies in Bolivia Increasing Access to Low-Cost Water Supplies in Rural Areas

Downloads: 766

Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This publication provides background on select EMAS household water supply technologies to the wider sector audience. It assesses and presents experiences with these technologies as used in Bolivia. The document provides: (1) an overview of EMAS household water supply technologies (specifically the EMAS Pump, a percussion-jetting-rotation manual drilling method, and rainwater harvesting systems) and of EMAS’s approach to im-proving water supply, and (2) an independent assessment of these EMAS technologies as used in Bolivia. Reference is given to other available resources related to EMAS technologies, including EMAS training videos that are available on the internet.

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