RWSN Resources

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Author Year Downloads Title

Drilling Boreholes for Handpumps Working Paper 2 on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

Downloads: 390

Author: WURZEL, P.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat
Institution: RWSN

This booklet seeks to suggest ways in which funds can be better used for making safe water available to the poor by illustrating how drilling costs can be reduced without compromising water quality, water quantity, or the productive life of the borehole. These arguments are directed towards the rural water supply sector as a whole. Those directly addressed are primarily decision makers, government civil servants, planners and implementers of water projects who are not experts in drilling, as well as technical people, project leaders, technical aid personnel etc. This publication is neither a detailed drilling manual nor a methodology of drilling methods.

The author draws on his extensive experience as a member of the UNICEF Water and Environmental Sanitation community. He hopes that his views and proposals will be a catalyst for change, and that this contribution will stimulate interest in experimenting with ideas on low cost drilling of boreholes for handpumps.

Water Safety Planning for Small Communities Step-by-step risk management guidance for drinking-water supplies in small communities

Downloads: 298

Author: WHO
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: World Health Organisation

The WSP approach is designed to help a community manage health risks that could threaten its water supply. By following the WSP approach, community members identify and prioritize health risks and, where necessary, take steps, over time,to improve the safety of the water supply using available resources. WSPs are applicable for a range of scales and levels, and in different contexts. A WSP can be developed for all existing schemes, from point sources to piped systems, as well as for new supplies. In new schemes, it should be straightforward for the supporting agency to incorporate the WSP approach into initial community mobilization and project implementation.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Water Catchment Protection Handbook 1. Learning and Experience Sharing Series

Downloads: 201

Year of Publishing: 0000
Publisher: Helvetas

This document describes a more or less standardised approach for the organisational and technical implementation of water catchment protection. This approach consists of 8 steps:
1: Preparation
2: Sensitisation of the population
3: Feasibility study
4: Water catchment protection plan
5: Land demarcation and ownership
6: Implementation water catchment protection
7: Operation and maintenance
8: Monitoring and evaluation

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Helvetas Cameroon Experiences in Catchment Protection Activities Assessment

Downloads: 79

Year of Publishing: 2004
Publisher: Helvetas

Helvetas Cameroon has been active for more than 10 years in water catchment protection in the North West Province. In this report a review is presented of the activities performed by Helvetas Cameroon in water catchment protection and the best practises are summarised. This was done by reviewing literature on water catchment protection and 6 field visits to sites where Helvetas Cameroon has been actively involved in water catchment protection.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Cartographie thématique des zones favorables aux techniques de captage et d?exhaure à faible coût

Downloads: 45

Year of Publishing: 2008
Publisher: Practica Foundation
Institution: USAID

This report maps out the favourable zones for manual drilling and low cost pumps in parts of Madagascar. The report outlines the drilling techniques (which cost between US$80 and US$ 250 per well); the pumps (Canzee and Rope Pumps costing US$ 40 to US$ 175) and provides a series of maps of hand drilling and pump potential in the regions of Amoro I Mania, Haute Masiatra, Antisinanana. Analanjirofo, Alaotramangoro, Vatovavy Fitovinany, Anosy and Atsimo Andrefana.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Mapping the potential for manual drilling

Downloads: 39

Author: UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: Practica Foundation, EnterpriseWorks/VITA

The potential for manual drilling is being mapped in 20 countries based on available data including hydrogeology, satellite images, and population density. This will provide a clear indication of the countries with the highest potential to benefit from this technique.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

Downloads: 419

Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Water safety plan A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

Downloads: 211

Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: World Health Organisation

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use.

Framework for Water Source Protection Ministry of Water & Environment, Uganda

Downloads: 236

Author: MWE
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Ministry of Water & Environment
Institution: Directorate of Water Resource Management

These guidelines were developed as part of the wider operationalisation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The basis of the guidelines is developing a 'Water Source Protection Plan', which bridges the gap between Water Safety Planning, payment for watershed services and IWRM. The planning process encourages the owners/operators of water infrastructure (pumping stations, dams, valley tanks, boreholes) to identify the people in the catchment area for their water source whose activities may be impacting the quantity, quality or reliability of their water supply, and then to agree a mutually beneficial plan of action.

Of the five volumes, three are currently available from MWE from their website (or below)

Draft Review of the Household Arsenic Removal Technology Options

Downloads: 46

Author: MUDGAL, A. K.
Year of Publishing: 2002
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Handpump Technology Network

Arsenic is widely distributed element in the earth’s crust and ranks twentieth in elemental presence. As a Group V element, arsenic exhibits a broad range of chemical reactivity and it is commercially used in alloys with lead. Arsenic in natural water has been reported from several countries including Bangladesh, China, Chile, Ghana, India, Nepal, Rumania, Taiwan, USA and Vietnam. In India, arsenic pollution is mostly of geological origin. However, ground water pollution of anthropogenic origin - due to industrial or mining waste - has been reported from Chennai in Tamil Nadu and Rajnandgaon in Madhya Pradesh.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Spring Catchment Manuals on Drinking Water Supply. Volume 4:

Downloads: 373

Author: MEULI, C., WEHRLE, K.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat

The purpose of this manual is to present the reader with information on how to build and operate a good spring catchment. However, several thousand technical briefs would be required to cover every possible permutation of the many factors that serve to classify a spring. In practice, no spring is like any other, and therefore guidance in the form of basic principles can only be presented here. The information contained in this manual should be considered and then adapted to suite the specifics of each setting where a spring is located.

A Brief Review of Groundwater for Rural Water Supply in sub-Saharan Africa Technical Report

Downloads: 539

Author: MACDONALD, A., and J. DAVIES
Year of Publishing: 2000
Publisher: British Geological Survey
Institution: DFID, NERC

Groundwater has proved the most reliable resource for meeting rural water demand in sub-Saharan Africa. There are four main hydrogeological environments in SSA. Each of these broad categories requires different methods for finding and abstracting groundwater.

Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation Guidelines for

Downloads: 66

Author: Lawrence, A., Macdonald, D., Howard, A., Barrett, M., Pedley, S., Ahmed, K., Nalubega, M.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: British Geological Survey 2001

There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still remains without access to safe water and sanitation, and many of these can only be served by groundwater. The need for renewed efforts to improve the situation is recognised in DFID's recently published water strategy paper - ''Addressing the Water Crisis - Healthier and More Productive Lives for Poor People''.

These guidelines are an important contribution to risk assessment and the avoidance of the contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation. They have been development as part of a project funded by DFID through the water component of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division's Knowledge and Research Programme.

Local Council Water Security Training Course

Downloads: 625

Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Richard Carter and Associates Ltd

The course provide appreciation and knowledge of water resources management, a better understanding of risks to water resources, introduces techniques for monitoring water resources and enable a better understanding of the factors that need to be considered when planning WRM activities.

Social adoption of groundwater pumping technology and the development of groundwater cultures Governance at the point of abstraction. Thematic Paper 8.

Downloads: 44

Author: JONES, M. J.
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: GEF/UNESCO/FAO/IAH/World Bank

This thematic paper examines the historic and on‐going development of water‐lifting technologies and the governance problems and solutions that have arisen from controlled or uncontrolled groundwater abstraction.
It also examines legislation on improved pump efficiency and the economics and life‐cycle costing of borehole

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Managing Water Locally An essential dimension of community water development

Downloads: 20

Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Institution of Civil Engineers, Oxfam, WaterAid

This publication is the outcome of a partnership between the Institution of Civil Engineers in Britain and two international development agencies: Oxfam and WaterAid. In 2009-10 these organisations jointly organised eight public presentations by a mix of academics and practitioners from three continents to an open audience of interested professionals.

Iron & Manganese Removal: Simple methods for drinking water Working Papers on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation - Vol. 1

Downloads: 602

Author: HARTMANN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat

This bulletin is written for engineers and technicians working in the field. It aims to give an introduction to the subject of iron and manganese in drinking water as well as showing possible methods for their removal. There is a focus on simple methods that can be applied in rural and periurban areas for water supplies that serve up to 25 000 consumers.

Proceedings of the 7th RWSN Forum 29 Nov - 2 Dec 2016, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

Downloads: 57

Author: FUREY, S. G. (editor)
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

The 2016 Rural Water Supply Network Forum in Abidjan was the first global gathering to consider the practical challenge of how everyone worldwide can get access to safe, affordable water by 2030. It was also the first RWSN Forum to take place in a francophone country, in the 25 years since the creation of the network.
The Forum gathered 467 rural water sector practitioners from over 300 organisations from 64 countries in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe, in a bilingual (English/French) four day event. It was opened by the Prime Minister of Côte d’Ivoire, Mr Daniel Kaplan Duncan. We were joined by HE State Minster James Dengchol Tot, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity of Ethiopia, as well as a delegation from AMCOW.

This Forum proceedings compiles all peer-reviewed materials. Separate downloads and links to the films can be found at:

Sustainable Groundwater Development: use, protect and enhance RWSN Publication 2014-9

Downloads: 457

Author: FUREY S. G. & DANERT K.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat, SDC, UNICEF, DFID, DEW Point

This RWSN publication is to help create a better understanding of the crucial importance of groundwater and to highlight the risk to its sustainability. It is intended for politicians, policy makers, government partners and the public. It advocates responsible groundwater use and cautions against abuse. It encourages users of groundwater to protect and enhance this precious resource for the long term benefit of the most vulnerable communities who primarily use hand pumps.

Water Source Protection Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

Downloads: 265

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects.

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