RWSN Resources

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UPGro Catalyst projects A synthesis and individual project activities and results

Downloads: 81

Author: UPGro
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation

This report summarises the contribution to groundwater knowledge of the 15 catalyst projects funded through the UPGro programme between 2013 and 2014, plus the The Africa Groundwater Atlas and Literature Archive.
The projects worked in 12 individual countries (see next page - some countries had more than one project), and three had an Africa-wide focus or component.
At the time of writing two of the 15 projects are still running (Velasquez-Orta and Colombo). The Groundwater Atlas project will also continue as a major archive of African groundwater information.

The Case for Manual Drilling in Africa

Downloads: 16

Author: UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: Practica Foundation, EnterpriseWorks/VITA

Achieving the MDGs for water supply in Sub-Saharan Africa is a daunting task because the magnitude of the problem is ever increasing. There are 284 million people living in rural areas without access to potable water. In order to reach these people, radical solutions, and low-cost soutions are needed - such as manual drilling.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

Downloads: 419

Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Handpump Data 2009 (ARCHIVE - SEE UPDATE) Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

Downloads: 989

Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: RWSN

Handpump data for selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (2007) Data for: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DRC, Ethiopia, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Banks, B. & S. G. Furey (2016) What’s Working, Where, and for How Long. A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics, GWC/Skat , RWSN, St. Gallen, Switzerland

(see link below)

Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) Strategy 2012 to 2014 January 2012

Downloads: 215

Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: RWSN

The Final RWSN Strategy for 2012-2014, which describes the objectives, partners and activities. This includes 4 new themes and some new core partners.

Who is going to drill the African Boreholes?

Downloads: 115

Author: ROBINSON, A.,
Year of Publishing: 2006
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: WSP, Skat

Private drillers form an essential segment of the borehole drilling sector in Africa. More needs to be known about their abilities and the contribution they can make. Case studies of entrepreneurial drilling companies in four African countries are used to illustrate business strategies and common constraints, and possible ways forward.

Framework for Water Source Protection Ministry of Water & Environment, Uganda

Downloads: 236

Author: MWE
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Ministry of Water & Environment
Institution: Directorate of Water Resource Management

These guidelines were developed as part of the wider operationalisation of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The basis of the guidelines is developing a 'Water Source Protection Plan', which bridges the gap between Water Safety Planning, payment for watershed services and IWRM. The planning process encourages the owners/operators of water infrastructure (pumping stations, dams, valley tanks, boreholes) to identify the people in the catchment area for their water source whose activities may be impacting the quantity, quality or reliability of their water supply, and then to agree a mutually beneficial plan of action.

Of the five volumes, three are currently available from MWE from their website (or below)

India Handpump Revolution: Challenge and Change HTN Working Paper: WP 01/97

Downloads: 75

Author: MUDGAL, A. K.
Year of Publishing: 1997
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

This case study traces the development of handpumps in India, including a review of the systems developed to ensure consistent, high quality production of the India Mark II. It investigates the pressures that led to the introduction of a new variant of the India Mark II — the India Mark III — a handpump designed for easy maintenance and repair. It highlights the primary issues of concern in the field that led to formulation of the concept of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM).

Principles for Borehole Construction and Rehabilitation in Sierra Leone

Downloads: 391

Author: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone

This document represents the official guidelines of the Government of Sierra Leone on the issue of the construction and rehabilitation of boreholes.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Optimising Road Development for Groundwater Recharge and Retention Final Workshop

Downloads: 160

Author: Meta Meta Research / Mekelle University
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Meta Meta Research

This is one of the 15 UPGro Catalyst Projects. This one looked at ways at which roads can be used to improve groundwater recharge in Ethiopia. Below are the presentations from the final project workshop which from this exciting project.

There are also links to some the final reports (filed separately).

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

A Brief Review of Groundwater for Rural Water Supply in sub-Saharan Africa Technical Report

Downloads: 539

Author: MACDONALD, A., and J. DAVIES
Year of Publishing: 2000
Publisher: British Geological Survey
Institution: DFID, NERC

Groundwater has proved the most reliable resource for meeting rural water demand in sub-Saharan Africa. There are four main hydrogeological environments in SSA. Each of these broad categories requires different methods for finding and abstracting groundwater.

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion RWSN Publication 2015-1

Downloads: 1075

Author: MacArthur, J.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries).

Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo UNICEF Contract 43147804

Downloads: 155

Author: Koestler, A.G., J. Kahorha, L. Biteete
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: A-Aqua AS

This study is seen as an extension of a study carried out in 2009 by UNICEF, which mapped the handpumps and spare parts market in Africa as a whole. The study found that although large numbers of handpumps are sold in Africa each year, availability of spare parts at community level is still a great challenge. In addition, supply chains for handpumps and spare parts are normally separated, and there are challenges with availability, affordability as well as sufficient community structures to ensure demand.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Social adoption of groundwater pumping technology and the development of groundwater cultures Governance at the point of abstraction. Thematic Paper 8.

Downloads: 44

Author: JONES, M. J.
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: GEF/UNESCO/FAO/IAH/World Bank

This thematic paper examines the historic and on‐going development of water‐lifting technologies and the governance problems and solutions that have arisen from controlled or uncontrolled groundwater abstraction.
It also examines legislation on improved pump efficiency and the economics and life‐cycle costing of borehole

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Managing Water Locally An essential dimension of community water development

Downloads: 20

Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Institution of Civil Engineers, Oxfam, WaterAid

This publication is the outcome of a partnership between the Institution of Civil Engineers in Britain and two international development agencies: Oxfam and WaterAid. In 2009-10 these organisations jointly organised eight public presentations by a mix of academics and practitioners from three continents to an open audience of interested professionals.

Sustainable Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supplies: Are we moving in the right direction? Perspectives No 3

Downloads: 116

Author: HARVEY, P.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: UNICEF

The sustainability of rural water supplies is affected by a wide range of factors including policies, institutional issues, financing strategies, technology choice, technical quality, the environment, social factors, management models and supply chains.

Sudan Drilling Status Report 2012 Development of Code of Practice for Cost Effective Boreholes and Drilling Strategy

Downloads: 96

Author: Government of Sudan
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: Government of Sudan
Institution: Drinking Water and Sanitation Unit

The Government of Sudan has developed National and State Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Strategic Plans for 2012 to 2016. Under the plans it is envisaged that several thousands of boreholes will need to be drilled annually to meet the water supply targets. The Government with UNICEF support developed 10 Principles for Cost Effective Boreholes which were adopted by stakeholders at a workshop in Khartoum in 2009 as the framework for future borehole provision in the country.
This is the report of a study to evaluate the status of drilling and drilling practices within the framework of the 10 principles and from it develop a National Code of Practice for Borehole Construction and a National Drilling Strategy for Sudan. Information were collected from the public and private sectors and the NGOs in 8 states.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

RWSN Handpump Survey 2013 Summary of Findings

Downloads: 747

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Rural Water Supply Network

Manual pumps have been used for centuries but this simple technology remains the mainstay of rural water supplies in many countries. The Handpump Technology Network (which later became RWSN) was set up in 1992 to promote collaboration and standardisation so that handpumps could provide more reliable and better quality rural water services.

This survey is aimed at practitioners in government, NGOs, private sector and development partners who are directly involved in rural water service implementation, or who are involved in the procurement of handpumps or spare parts (as either a buyer or seller).

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

Downloads: 681

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

Water Source Protection Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

Downloads: 265

Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects.

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