RWSN Resources

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Rural Water Supply Technology Options

Downloads: 198

Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 2003
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

A small compendium of possible options of rural water supply technologies, starting from low cost handpumps to small mechnised systems.

Low Cost Handpumps RWSN Field Note 2011-3

Downloads: 568

Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN

Groundwater supplies provide a significant proportion of rural dwellers in the developing world with access to a safe drinking water supply and will continue to do so in the near future. With the emergence of Self Supply and its increasing acceptance, low-cost handpumps have a role to play. Twenty five years ago the emphasis was on completely enclosed pumps (for drinking water only) to avoid the contamination of the well. Over the last 10 years, cheaper and simpler pump designs have become more acceptable. This development has been strongly influ-enced by the general recognition of the self-supply approach.

This guidance note points out the strengths and limitations of a number of low cost pumps. It provides an overview of the appli-cation, technical details, materials used, installation and mainte-nance, manufacturing requirements and costs of several low cost pumps, including information on the numbers installed and locations.

Bomba de Accion Directa (Maya - Yaku) Especificaciones Rev. 0-1993

Downloads: 55

Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 1993
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Skat

Esta Especificacion intenta apoyar a todos los usarios de la Bomba de Accion Directa (MAYA - YAKU), pero en primera linea esta destinada a compradores, productores y agentes de inspeccsion de la Bomba de Accion Directa.

Handpump Technology Input to the Joint Review of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Eastern Uganda Project- RUWASA Phase IIA

Downloads: 66

Author: BAUMANN, E.
Year of Publishing: 1998
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Handpump Technology Network/Skat

The RUWASA project decided in 1992 to replace all GI rising main and rods with SS materials and to start a monitoring programme on 12 selected wells to check the performance of the SS pipes and rods. The September 1997 report concluded that the SS components showed signs of corrosion and that the watertank and the endcap of the cylinder showed extensive corrosion.
An extended study was carried out in 1998, which revealed that 42% of the 124 wells showed pitting or crevice corrosion of the rising main pipes. Danida asked HTN to:
* assess the performance of the U3 handpumps
* recommend changes in the technology choice for Project Phase IIB
* propose strategies how the material in stock can best be utilised

Supply Chains for Rural Water Supply in Uganda HTN Report

Downloads: 61

Author: Baumann E, Okuni P and Wandera S
Year of Publishing: 2002
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: HTN

The objective of this study is to review the status of supply chains for spare parts with the goal to identify appropriate interventions that will improve availability of spare parts. Supply of equipment cannot be de-linked from supply of spare parts therefore the study looks into the supply of equipment as well.

Tanzania Supply Chain Study Report

Downloads: 79

Year of Publishing: 2000
Institution: Skat

Tanzania is entering a transition period; the rural water policy calls for decentralisation with legal ownership of RWSS facilities by communities, and for the private sector to become a major stakeholder. The institutional framework is favourable, but the decentralisation policy is new, and district institutions lack capacity and experience. Building capacity in the districts and the private sector is needed to allow all partners to assume their new roles. The Learning and Innovation Loan serves as a learning ground to investigate how to gradually change the government‟s role to that of a facilitator and to integrate private sector suppliers for the provision of goods and services.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

Downloads: 55

Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Hand Sludging - A Report From North West Bengal Report of DFID KAR Project R7126 “Private Sector Participation in Low Cost Water Well Drilling”,

Downloads: 51

Author: BALL, P. & DANERT, K.
Year of Publishing: 1999
Publisher: Cranfield University
Institution: Silsoe College

The Low Cost Drilling Project (Cranfield University/DFID/Government of Uganda) is developing a modification of the traditional Asian sludging technology for use in Africa.
As part of the technology research a visit was made to north India to observe and measure various characteristics of this well drilling technique. The report describes these observations and draws conclusions for the Low Cost Well Drilling Project.
The method and equipment used by the Indian drillers (“mistries”) are set out, followed by an outline of the ergonomics and quantification of the work rates needed for hole cleaning and drilling. Drilling penetration rates in soft alluvium were observed to range from 16.5 to 45m per hour.
Traditional and more modern designs of casing and wellscreen, and the corresponding well completion methods, are described.
The cost of a 12m water well drilled by sludging in North West Bengal is estimated at Rs200 (approximately £3-4).
Practical conclusions are drawn in relation to equipment design for Uganda or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Specification And Drawings For The Pounder Rig a human-powered drill rig for constructing shallow small diameter wells for domestic and agricultural water supply

Downloads: 126

Author: BALL, P. & CARTER, R. C.
Year of Publishing: 2000
Publisher: Cranfield University
Institution: Silsoe College

Despite all the efforts to date to improve access to safe domestic water supply and sanitation in less developed countries, still between 1 and 3 billion people lack these essential services. The causes of this situation are complex, and are not to be resolved through technology alone. However, it is widely accepted that two broad sets of conditions (among others) need to be in place in order for the situation to improve – technologies which are affordable and manageable by user communities, and the institutional arrangements by which communities can gain access to such technologies.
This document is one contribution from one project in one country (Uganda) within which an attempt is under way to address these issues.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Drilled Wells Manuals on Drinking Water Supply. Volume 6:

Downloads: 129

Author: BALL, P.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat

This manual explains in practical terms the basic drilling techniques. It describes the use of fluid circulation in soft ground formations, and compressed air and hammers for hard rock. It discusses
well design, types of pump and their installation, screen selection, and testing.

Solutions for Reducing Borehole Costs in Rural Africa Field Note

Downloads: 284

Author: BALL, P.
Year of Publishing: 2004
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: WSP, Skat Foundation

This field note contends that he current cost of drilled boreholes in Africa can be halved by relaxing borehole specifications in favor of smaller diameter bores drilled by more maneuverable, lower cost equipment.

Private Sector Perspective, North Sudan Paper presented at the National Workshop on Cost-Effective Boreholes, November 2009

Downloads: 41

Author: AZIEM, A. and A. OSMAN
Year of Publishing: 2009

It is estimated that in Sudan there is a need for 10.000-20.000 boreholes, as is the case in many African countries. Some studies shows that almost an average of 1000.000 Boreholes is needed to reach full coverage in Africa, if the idea of encouraging cost effectiveness of borehole water supplies to reduce the average cost by 10%, then a saving of approx 1 Billion will increase the coverage by 10 percent.

Private Sector Perspectives on Cost-Effective Boreholes - South Sudan International Workshop on Cost-Effective Boreholes (CEB) in Sudan

Downloads: 51

Author: AWOL, M. A. M.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: South Sudan Drilling Services Ltd.

A cost effective borehole may be understood or defined as a borehole that is delivered to a community at lowest cost, of good quality technical construction ( drilling, casing, screening, grouting, well development, test pumping, platform construction & Installation), of good yield, and able to function and serve the beneficiary community for long time at minimum maintenance cost.9.

Code of Practice for Cost-Effective Boreholes: Zambia Country Status Report 2009 Final Report 1st November 2009

Downloads: 235

Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: RWSN

It is recognised that drilling interventions vary widely both nationally and internationally and are not always cost-effective. The objective of this consultancy is to identify and set out key procedures for cost-effective boreholes as appropriate for Zambia.

The report considers the existing status of borehole drilling in Zambia. Chapter 2 reflects on the meaning of “cost effective” and key areas of concern are highlighted. Chapter 3 summarises borehole costs and prices in Zambia. Chapter 4 examines Zambian policies and practices with respect to the generic principles of the COP and the proposed structure of the “Guideline to Standard Procedures for Design and Construction of Protected Water Points” (Appendix 5). Headings in the report text include brackets which refer to the related numbered section in the proposed guideline structure. The Report text reflects on current practices, and recommends action for further consideration and inclusion. Recommendations are italicised in the text.

Elements of Sustainable Solar Water Pumping System Design Synthesis and presentations from 2015 WEDC Conference Workshop

Downloads: 651

Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Water Missions International

Technological advances over the past decade have made solar water pumping a viable option for potable water service delivery in rural settings. Solar pumping is an especially attractive alternative when poor groundwater quality or high population density and growth limit the applicability of boreholes fitted with handpumps. However, globally-accessible resources that specifically speak to the various technological, financial, social, environmental, institutional, and operational elements of sustainable solar pumping designs are limited. This workshop provides participants with an opportunity to explore various aspects of holistic design of solar pumping systems through guided group discussion.

Handpumps Testing and Development: Progress Report on Field and Laboratory Testing Work Bank Technical Paper Number 29

Downloads: 35

Year of Publishing: 1984
Publisher: World Bank

Rural Water Supply Handpumps Project

The UNDP/World Bank Project for the Testing and Technological Development of Handpumps for Rural Water Supply is field testing a total of 2860 pumps of 76 pump types in 17 countries. The Project has also completed full tests of 23 pump models at the Consumers' Association Laboratory in the United Kingdom and plans more tests both in the U.K^. and in laboratories elsewhere. Emphasis has been placed on the development of pumps which are suitable for "Village Level Operation and Maintenance" (VLOM).

The current report reviews all Project activities and conclusions to date, concentrating on field work but also summarizing laboratory activities. It relates significant findings in the development and use of VLOM handpumps. The report also reviews activities essential for the success of rural and urban fringe handpump programs, including community participation, caretaker training, and proper construction of wells and boreholes.

Community Water Supply: the handpump option Rural Water Supply Handpumps Project

Downloads: 356

Year of Publishing: 1987
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: UNDP/World Bank

This document presents conclusions of five years of work devoted to the assessment of available technology and management options for the wide-scale implementation of community water supply systems. An examination of policy options for developing countries suggests that economic stability and growth can be enhanced if the rural and urban-fringe populations are adequately served with non-polluted water supplies. An adequate water supply is one of the basic needs of life, but is often lacking in developing countries. Not only has the rate of construction of improved water supply systems been slower than the target of complete coverage originally set under the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, but also many of the schemes already completed are not in satisfactory operating condition. A sound investment strategy in this sector calls for low-cost and maintainable solutions to achieve wide-scale coverage of the rural and urban-fringe communities in developing countries.

Reunião de Lançamento e Primeira Assembleia Geral Hotel Rovuma, em Maputo 7 e 8 de Agosto de 2008

Downloads: 10

Author: APM
Year of Publishing: 2008
Institution: WSP

O documento conceitual do evento diz que entre 300,000 a 500,000 furos serão necesários para o alcance dos Objectivos e Desenvolvimento do Milénio (ODM) em África. Destes, aproximadamente 20,0001 furos novos para o abastecimento de água às populações rurais, deverão ser feitos em Moçambique até 2015. A pergunta que se põe é: quem é que vai fazer esses furos e a que preço?

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Etude sur l'optimisation du cout des forages en Afrique de l'Ouest Rapport de Synthese Rapport n° 44743/B

Downloads: 17

Author: ANTEA
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: The World Bank

Au cours du sommet du Millénaire, du 6 au 8 septembre 2000 à New York, les dirigeants des pays du monde ont convenu de réduire de moitié, au plus tard en 2015, la proportion de la population qui n'a pas accès, de façon durable, à un approvisionnement.

Consultancy Services: Quality Assurance of UNICEF Drilling Programmes for Boreholes in Malawi Final Report

Downloads: 192

Author: ANSCOMBE, J.R.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development
Institution: UNICEF

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