RWSN Resources

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Developing low-cost household water supply options: the potential of Self Supply in Ethiopia 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009

Downloads: 37


Author: WORKNEH, P. S., DEVERILL, P. A. and A. G. WOLDESELASSIE
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: WEDC - Water, Engineering and Development Centre
Institution:

Ethiopia has launched a Universal Access Plan (UAP) to achieve safe water supply and sanitation for the country’s 77 million people by 2012. This would mean providing safe water service to 50.9 million new users in just 7 years. The government recently reviewed the progress of UAP and concluded that it would be challenging to achieve its targets with the existing implementation approach. The review strongly recommended that low-cost options need to be pursued to accelerate progress.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Where does the water flow? Roads runoff, soil erosion, groundwater, livelihoods and poverty alleviation in Tigray, Ethiopia

Downloads: 42


Author: Welle, K., R. Alba, J. Demenge, A. Addisu and K. Manjur
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Development Studies, University of Mekelle, Meta Meta Research
Institution:

The study is part of the UpGro project. Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro). Based on fieldwork conducted in 2014 in the semi‐arid region of Tigray, Ethiopia, this report explores the physical and socio‐economic impacts of road related surface and groundwater flows – and how people cope with and adapt to them. We argue that two distinctive objectives of improving road connectivity and improving water availability for irrigation – are linked and could be served by the same infrastructure, which we call multifunctional roads.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Estimating Private Domestic Well Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Oklahoma

Downloads: 42


Author: WEAVER, J, MURRAY, A, KREMER, F, BLACKWOOD, K and MCELMURRY, A
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency
Institution: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Private domestic wells are not subject to the testing requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and are susceptible to contamination by natural and anthropogenic contaminants. For public health and planning purposes, the locations of high density of private domestic well (PDW) use need to be determined. A key resource is the 1990 U.S. Census where the source of water was a survey question, which led to a nationwide estimate of PDW usage. In this paper, methods are developed to estimate the areal density of PDW use in later years using readily accessible data including the 1990 census results. Because of abundant data on PDW locations and public water supplies, Oklahoma was used for a pilot project. Well logs reported to the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the addition of housing units provide the means to update the 1990 census estimates. Census results and housing unit data are available on the county, census tract, and census block group level. PWD density estimates were consistent among these scales, as were estimates based on wells added and net housing units. The completeness of reported well logs was tested by counts from neighborhoods with known reliance on PDWs. The results showed that a significant undercounting of logs exists, and the small scale of subdivisions relative to even census block groups causes the method estimates to be lower than subdivision PDW densities. The estimates, however, indicate locations where high densities of PDWs are expected.

Cartographier les zones favorables au forage manue

Downloads: 31


Author: UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: Practica Foundation, EnterpriseWorks/VITA

UNICEF, Practica et EntrepriseWorks/VITA ont développé une mallette pédagogique à l'intention des pays africains souhaitant s'engager dans la professionnalisation du secteur du forage manuel. Cette mallette pédagogique comprend des fiches et manuels techniques.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Selection of Well Construction Methods

Downloads: 97


Author: UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: Practica Foundation, EnterpriseWorks/VITA

For the construction of safe groundwater points different well construction methods exist. Wells can be drilled with machines, drilled manually or dug by hand. Before selecting the most appropriate method, several criteria, such as geology, depth of aquifer, yield and location should be reviewed.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Sustainable transfer of manual well drilling to the private sector in Niger

Downloads: 47


Author: UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: Practica Foundation, EnterpriseWorks/VITA

This case study examines the impact of professional manual drilling operations on the access to potable water. For many years there was the lack of a coordinated effort and continuity of approach, which slowed the emergence of the manual drilling sector.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

An Investigation into the Impacts and Challenges of Implementing Self Supply in Eastern Uganda MSc Thesis Academic Year 2006/7

Downloads: 28


Author: TILLETT, W.
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: Cranfield University
Institution:

A Self Supply Pilot Project’ was established in 2006, to determine the scope for externally supporting incremental improvements to these ‘self supply’ sources. It was implemented by two Ugandan NGOs in Eastern Uganda; UMURDA and WEDA, in Bugiri and Amuria Districts, respectively.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Optimizing Intensified Runoff from Roads for Supplemental Irrigation: Tigray Region, Ethiopia UNESCO-IHE MSc Thesis

Downloads: 74


Author: Teweldebrihan M. D.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNESCO-IHE
Institution:

From the UPGro Catalyst Project "Optimising Road Development for Groundwater Recharge and Retention"

This research has demonstrated that the road in the study area is having significant negative impact to the agricultural livelihoods, but that also it has a huge potential to be a key contributor to the enhancement of the livelihoods. The three major recommendations are :( 1) for the betterment of the impacts, it is suggested that Roads for water harvesting and multiple uses be mainstreamed in educational systems (2) There should be integration between relevant institutions and authorities (ERA, MoA as well as regional and zonal line offices) in making future road development plans. And (3) Awareness generation should be done to encourage farmers utilize the runoff from roads for productive purposes. Moreover, technical assistance and training's needs to be delivered at grass-root level.

Harvesting the Rain A construcction Manual for Cement Rainwater Jars and Tanks

Downloads: 49


Author: T.V. Luong
Year of Publishing: 2002
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: UNICEF

The comprehensive manual was developed and published by UNICEF and gives a good overview of the construction process of the "Thai Jars", the large mortar jars which are very common in rural areas of Thailand and other parts of the world.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Improving household water supply (Self Supply) - The Potential in Mali

Downloads: 18


Author: SUTTON, S., MAIGA, B. and H. MAIGA
Year of Publishing: 2006
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: SWL Consultants, UNICEF, WaterAid

This document is based on the study undertaken by WaterAid and the Ministry of Health in June 2005 (funded by RWSN/ WSP-World Bank) as well as on national statistics and policy documents. It provides background information on the situation to date.

A Hidden Resource: Household-led rural water supply in Ethiopia

Downloads: 97


Author: SUTTON, S., BUTTERWORTH, J. and MEKONTA, L.
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
Institution:

This report brings together the findings of two complementary research studies on the role of Self Supply in rural water services provision in different regions of Ethiopia. Self Supply involves households taking the lead in their own development, including investment in the construction, upgrading and maintenance of their own water sources, lifting devices and storage facilities. Traditional wells, which are usually family-owned, are the most common type of source and are the focus of this report. Various types of lifting device are used, starting from a rope and bucket. Rope pumps are being promoted as a step ahead, and in some specific areas, diesel or electric pumps are common. Until now, there has been relatively little information available about the performance of family or traditional wells, with water quality studies, for example the Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality, RADWQ (WHO/ UNICEF, 2010), tending to focus on community sources such as handpumps.

An Introduction to Self­ Supply Putting the User First Incremental improvements and private investment in rural water supply

Downloads: 262


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: SKAT/RWSN / WSP
Institution:

Self­ Supply is an initiative which complements the conventional communal supply generally f­unded by the government, and later f­orms the backbone of­ rural water supply. It is an approach that aims to improve household or community water supply through user investment in water treatment, supply construction and upgrading, as well as rainwater harvesting.

Accelerating Self Supply - A Case Study from Ethiopia RWSN Field Note 2010-2

Downloads: 122


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2010
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

With 40 million or more rural people without access to safe wa-ter, Ethiopia is faced with a major challenge to reach the Universal Access Plan targets (98% coverage by 2012) or even the MDG target (52% coverage by 2015). At the same time there have already been mass campaigns to encourage household investment in rainwater harvesting for irrigation and well-digging. As a result, the government is keen to adopt the con-cepts of low-cost solutions and Self Supply and is exploring the best ways to do so.

Accelerating Self Supply - A Case Study from Mali RWSN Field Note 2010-1

Downloads: 67


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2010
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Self Supply is an approach whereby households are supported to make their own investments in water supplies. Mali is one of four countries considering the adoption of Self Supply into its rural water supply strategy. This follows moves by the Rural Wa-ter Supply Network (RWSN) to highlight the potential that household investment may have as an option for increasing the rate of water supply improvements in a country with over 200,000 unlined traditional wells. This represents one for every five households. Initially it is the health sector taking the initia-tive, as they recognise the numbers of people using these wells and the potential impact of progressive health risk reduction. Protection from contamination is accompanied by promotion of the productive use of water to repay investment. This paper documents progress in relation to Self Supply approaches in Mali and identifies some of the issues which may influence strategy or which need resolving.

Accelerating Self Supply - A Case Study from Zambia RWSN Field Note 2010-3

Downloads: 88


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2010
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Zambia has a very low density rural population, which makes the establishment of sustainable community water supplies a particular challenge. Previous piloting of improvements to traditional water sources showed both a demand for and an impact from low cost up-grading (Sutton 2002). UNICEF, with RWSN technical support, has been encouraging improvements to water supplies in some of the poorest districts of Luapula Province. Remarkably, these have been achieved with zero subsidy. All hardware costs (labour and materials) are covered by householders; the donor input being only in capacity building through training and marketing.

This document presents progress of the work to accelerate Self Supply in Zambia from 2007 to the end of 2009.

Accelerating Self Supply - Summary of progress in introducing a new approach RWSN Field Note 2011-2

Downloads: 109


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

The Ministry of Water and Environment as well as numerous Non-Government Organisations in Uganda have several years of experience in the promotion of rainwater harvesting for domestic use as well as the piloting of household-led improvements to hand-dug wells. It is becoming clear that many households are able and willing to invest in making improvements to their own water supplies. This field note documents the story of promoting such investments in Uganda from the late 1990s to 2010 and sets out a number of key issues that need to be considered as the country develops a Guiding Framework for Accelerating Access to Safe and Reliable Water through Self Supply in Uganda. These issues include the development of clear guidelines, training of the private sector, and links to planning and financial mechanisms.

Community led Improvements of Rural Drinking Water Supplies Knowledge and Research Project (KAR) R 7128 FINAL REPORT

Downloads: 55


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2002
Publisher: SWL Consultants
Institution: DFID

Knowledge and Research Project (KAR) R 7128 This report summarises the activities, results and future plans of a research project which was carried out in Zambia at the request of Department of Water Affairs, Ministry of Health and National WASHE.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Ethiopia - Rural Household Investment in Water Supply. Proposal for Study of Potential for Self Supply in Ethiopia, Preparatory to Large Scale Implementation. Consultancy Report Prepared for RWSN/WSP

Downloads: 74


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: SWL Consultants
Institution: WSP, RWSN

This study examines the success so far of encouraging households in Ethiopia to dig their own wells, the potential for further expansion and the next steps based on the impact and potential found.

Field report visit to Luapula Province - October 2007

Downloads: 13


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2007
Publisher: SWL Consultants
Institution: RWSN

This is a short report outlining the findings from a field visit to examin the progress of Self Supply in Luapula Province, Zambia.

Integrating a new approach - the example of Self Supply 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009

Downloads: 33


Author: SUTTON, S.
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: WEDC - Water, Engineering and Development Centre
Institution:

In the present climate of Demand Responsive Approaches and budget support, it is getting increasingly difficult to introduce new ideas. The temptation is to continue with 'business as usual', with little room for questioning its sustainability and effectiveness or exploring new approaches.

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