RWSN Resources

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Water and Sanitation Services: Achieving Sustainable Outcomes with Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean World Bank Toolkit, Report No: AUS11215

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Author: The World Bank Group
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank Group
Institution:

The objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical guidance and operational tools to promote the inclusive delivery of sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services to Indigenous peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

Professional Water Well Drilling A UNICEF Guidance Note

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Author: Danert K., Gesti Canuto J.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Unicef

This guidance note provides practical guidance for organisations and individuals that are trying to raise the professionalism of groundwater development in Africa. The guidance note is mainly concerned with rural and small towns’ water supplies but is mindful of the huge challenges faced by supplies in many growing African cities dealing with problems of groundwater quantity and quality.

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21914.64964

SDC Guideline for sustainable groundwater resource management Swiss Humanitarian Aid Reports and Papers (SHARP Series: GW/2016/1)

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Author: BUSSARD, T.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: SDC
Institution:

The main objective of the present guideline is to ensure the protection of groundwater intended for human consumption. Consequently, it is mainly focused on the protection of groundwater sources (e.g. pumping well, tapped springs). However, although the protection of sensitive areas for drinking water supply must be given high priority, good practices have to be implemented at a larger scale too, in order to sustain the resources as well as the aquatic ecosystems: awareness must be built in order to avoid any contamination of the water cycle (quality aspect) and to preserve water resources (quantity aspect), in particular within the aquifer areas

Rain water harvesting in the homestead

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Aquamor
Institution: Aquamor

Rainwater harvesting is the very well established concept of collecting rainwater for domestic use and for plant irrigation. Most commonly the rain is collected from the roofs of houses and passes down the gutter into a tank, where it is held before use. Its use will continue after the rainy season is over. The concept has been known since ancient times being practiced by the Romans and before. Many fine works have been written about rainwater harvesting – none better in Southern Africa than the work of John Gould working in Botswana. More recently the RWSN has played particular attention to it.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Aquamor
Institution: Aquamor

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved.

Costing and Pricing - A Guide for Water Well Drilling Enterprises RWSN Publication 2014-12

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Author: DANERT, K., LUUTU, A., CARTER, R., & OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

This field note is written for water well drilling enterprises as well as other agencies which manage, or are involved in drilling projects. Using a step-by-step approach it gives clear guidance on how to cost and price the construction of drilled water wells. It also provides tips on business management with an emphasis of the realities faced in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Once you are familiar with this field note, you will be in a much stronger position to calculate drilling costs, consider prices and deal with business realities.

Siting of Drilled Water Wells - A Guide for Project Managers RWSN Publication 2014-11

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Author: CARTER, R., CHILTON, J., DANERT, K. & OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

This field note has been written for managers of water supply programmes and projects. It provides a step by step guide on the siting of drilled water wells. As a first step, the essential requirements for a simple groundwater model are set out, including some basic explanations to help the reader establish a sound understanding of hydrogeology.

Water Well Guidelines for use in Developing Countries

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Author: SCHNEIDER, S. J.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution:

These guidelines are considered minimum requirements for basic protection of the groundwater resource and for the health and safety of those that develop and use the resource. These guidelines are intended to address basic water supply well construction, pumping equipment, and maintenance issues. Water supply wells include wells designed for domestic, municipal, community, industrial, commercial, irrigation and/or livestock water supply use in addition to aquifer storage (injection) and recovery wells.

المقررة الخاصة للأمم المتحدة المعنية بحق الإنسان في الحصول على مياه الشرب المأمونة وخدمات الصرف الصح

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Author: DE ALBUQUERQUE, C.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation
Institution: UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation

This Handbook is the product of six years of work by the first UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights to water and sanitation. It explains the meaning and legal obligations that arise from these rights, translating the often complex technical and legal language into accessible information.

This Handbook clarifies the meaning of the human rights to water and sanitation, explains the obligations that arise from these rights and provides guidance on implementing the human rights to water and sanitation. It also shares some examples of good practice, shows how these rights are being implemented and explores how States can be held to account for delivering on their obligations. Finally, the handbook provides a series of checklists, so that readers can assess how far they are complying with the human rights to water and sanitation.

The Handbook is primarily for governments at all levels, donors and national regulatory bodies. It provides information that will also be useful to other local, regional and international stakeholders, including civil society, service providers and human rights organisations.

The Handbook is presented in nine booklets, each of which addresses a particular area of activity:
1: Introduction
2: Frameworks (Legislative, regulatory and policy frameworks)
3: Financing (Financing, budgeting and budget-tracking)
4: Services (Planning processes, service providers, service levels and settlements)
5: Monitoring
6: Justice (Access to justice)
7: Principles (Non-discrimination, equality, information, participation, sustainability)
8: Checklists
9: Sources (Glossary, Bibliography, Index)

Booklets 2-7 contain checklists for the State and other actors to assess whether the State is complying with the requirements of the human rights to water and sanitation.

The Blair Pump An update

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution: Aquamor

The Blair Pump is a simple direct action shallow well hand pump. It was first designed in 1976 and developed further at the Blair Research Laboratory in Harare, (formerly Salisbury). The earlier models were heavy duty using 90mm PVC pipe as a cylinder. The maximum lift of these earlier models was 6m. Later in the early 1980’s a lighter duty model was designed at the laboratory for family use. Like the earlier model it was built with “off the shelf” fittings, which could put together by an artisan or in the home. This later model used 40mm PVC as a cylinder. The maximum pipe length for these later models was 12m. A description of its construction was introduced in to the school curriculum at the time. A mass produced version was also manufactured in Zimbabwe in the early 1980’s, using 50mm PVC pipe as a cylinder. These various models were described in detail in Rural Water Supplies and Sanitation.

The Zimbabwe Bucket Pump An update

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution: Aquamor

The “Bucket Pump” is a water lifting device which uses a tubular bucket to raise water from a tubular well – known as a tube well. These wells, usually drilled with a hand auger. They work best in shallow aquifers, where the soil is soft and easy to penetrate. Where conditions are suitable a well can be hand drilled in a few hours, cased with a PVC pipe, which is surrounded by a gravel pack. The pipe ascends through a concrete head-works consisting of an apron and water run-off. The pipe is closed off at the top lid. The tubular buckets were fitted with a non-return valve at the base. At first the tube-buckets were raised on a rope directly by hand. Later models used a windlass system to raise the bucket. Initially these windlass adapted bucket pumps were hand made using treated gum poles as windlass supports. Later the concept was commercialised, which shadowed the earlier work and made the device more expensive.

Technical Guidelines for Construction and Maintenance of Hand Dug Wells Sierra Leone

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Author: Ministry of Water Resources
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water Resources, Republic of Sierra Leone
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources

This document represents the official guidelines of the Government of Sierra Leone on the issue of the construction and maintenance of hand dug wells.

This publication is intended for water sector practitioners and managers who coordinate and oversee water supply service delivery. It is the outcome of a partnership between the Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), and a number of implementing agencies working in the WASH sector in Sierra Leone.

If this publication can contribute to permanent and lasting water points in Sierra Leone, and better standards of construction, then it will have achieved its purpose.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Guidebook for the implementation of decentralised water supply systems in Moldova ApaSan, Swiss Water and Sanitation Project in Moldova

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Author: Compilation: K. Klingel and S. Diener
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Skat Consulting Ltd
Institution: ApaSan, SDC, ADC

What is the guidebook about?
In 10 years of successful cooperation between Switzerland and Moldova, rural communities in Moldova have been supported with the construction of decentralised water supply systems. These new water supply systems use springs located close to the villages and distribute the water through a pipe network to the households of the community. The systems are managed by community based organisations, the Water
Consumer Associations (WCA). Such decentralised and community managed water supply systems have proven to be very successful in providing sustainable water supply for rural communities. This approach therefore merits wider application throughout rural Moldova. The aim of the guidebook is to make this experience available, with the hope that it is used to implement more systems that provide better and lasting water supply services for the rural population in Moldova.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Structuring Private-Sector Participation (PSP) Contracts for Small Scale Water Projects Water and Sanitation Program: TOOLKIT

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Author: RIGBY DELMON, V.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: World Bank
Institution: WSP

The purpose of this toolkit is to provide guidance to water authorities who intend to contract private operators and sector professionals assisting such authorities, on how to structure a contract and bidding documents for private sector participation (“PSP contract”) in small scale water projects. The toolkit focuses on small scale water schemes typically serving a settlement with a population from 1,000 to 10,000—with sufficient density to warrant a network solution, but which do not generate enough scale for integration in a centralized network management. The management and regulation of these schemes are typically left to less well resourced local actors and institutions, requiring more explicit and simplified guidance.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Project Implementation Manual Community Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, Ghana

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Author: CWSA
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Community Water Supply and Sanitation Agency
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing

The PIM targets all stakeholders (at national, regional and district levels) involved in the provision of water and sanitation services. The manual provides guidance in WASH project management and implementation towards the realisation of national goals. It sets out implementation rules, procedures, and processes with the dual objective to forge strong partnerships and relationships across all key stakeholders and to ascertain the long-term sustainability of all water and sanitation facilities installed in rural communities and small
towns.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Water safety plan A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

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Author: RICKERT, B., SCHMOLL, O., RINEHOLD, A. and E. BARRENBERG
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: World Health Organisation
Institution:

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use.

Principles for Borehole Construction and Rehabilitation in Sierra Leone

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Author: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone

This document represents the official guidelines of the Government of Sierra Leone on the issue of the construction and rehabilitation of boreholes.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Manual for Accelerating Self Supply Water Supply & Sanitation Directorate

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Author: MoWE
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy
Institution:

This Self Supply Acceleration Manual deals with a matter that is very close and important to achieve the target set by the Government of Ethiopia in its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP). In the GTP target, the Government has placed considerable emphasis on the delivery of clean water to the people of Ethiopia. During the first three years period of the GTP (2003-2005E.C), over 22.2 Million people across the country were able to get access to clean water. This has significant developmental impact in improving their life in general and that of women and children in particular.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

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Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Guidelines for Developing a Self Supply Acceleration Plan for your Area

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Author: Butterworth, J. Adank, M., Bakker-Kruijne E., Mekonta L. and I. Klaassen
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IRC
Institution:

Who will use these guidelines?
If you are working to improve access to safe rural water supply at woreda, zonal and/ or regional levels, or are involved in any aspect of water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, irrigation, access to water for livelihoods, etc., then these guidelines are for you.
You may be a government official in water, health, agriculture or finance; or you may be within a non-governmental organisation (NGO), donor agency, training institution or the private sector.

What is the objective of these guidelines?
These guidelines will support you to develop a Self-supply acceleration plan for your woreda, zone or region.

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