RWSN Resources

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Harnessing water point data to improve drinking water services

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Author: Dickinson, N., Knipschild, F., Magara, P. & G. Kwizera
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: WASHNote/IRC Uganda
Institution: Water and Development Alliance (WADA)

This document introduces what water point data are, why they are collected, and how they are used in “The Value of Water Point Data”. The chapter “A Deep Dive: The Case of Uganda” illustrates the use and progressive improvement of water point data in a country that is actively updating and publishing its National Water Atlas.

“From Water Point Data to Improved Water Services” provides an overview of how water point data can be used more effectively to measure services and water resources, strengthen the enabling environment, and improve coordination. It also reviews some innovative approaches under development, such as the remote monitoring of water points. Finally, “Recommendations” provides actionable guidance to a) national governments, b) local governments, c) NGOs and implementers, and d) donors and investors.

Procurement, Costing & Pricing and Contract Management of Borehole Construction - Zambia Short Course Report Striving for Professionalism in Cost Effective Boreholes in Zambia

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Author: ADEKILE, D and DANERT, K
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

The Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) Zambia and the Water and Resources Management Authority (WARMA) weresupported by the cooperation of UNICEF and Skat Foundation to strengthen capacity in the country with respect to siting, drilling, supervision, procurement and contract management. The support included the delivery of a five-day short course to 38 participants in Zambia on drilling procurement, costing & pricing and contract management. This report presents the proceedings and outcomes of the course.

SDC Guideline for sustainable groundwater resource management Swiss Humanitarian Aid Reports and Papers (SHARP Series: GW/2016/1)

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Author: BUSSARD, T.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: SDC
Institution:

The main objective of the present guideline is to ensure the protection of groundwater intended for human consumption. Consequently, it is mainly focused on the protection of groundwater sources (e.g. pumping well, tapped springs). However, although the protection of sensitive areas for drinking water supply must be given high priority, good practices have to be implemented at a larger scale too, in order to sustain the resources as well as the aquatic ecosystems: awareness must be built in order to avoid any contamination of the water cycle (quality aspect) and to preserve water resources (quantity aspect), in particular within the aquifer areas

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Water Source Protection Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects.

Managing Cash Reserves for Capital Maintenance Expenses Synthesis and presentations from 2015 WEDC Conference Workshop

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Author: ARMSTRONG, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Water Missions International

When service providers succeed in raising considerable sums or even recovering full life-cycle costs associated with ongoing water service delivery through tariffs and user fees they are often faced with a different sort of challenge: managing sizeable cash reserves that are intended to be used for future capital maintenance expenses. Questionable long-term reliability of local financial institutions can lead to investment in diversified assets (e.g. insurance systems, real estate, spare parts, and even livestock). In addition, pressure to use portions of cash reserves in ways that are thought to be more productive, such as in system upgrades or expansion, can lead to funds being used sooner than originally intended. Although recent efforts by IRC, RWSN and others have helped to identify approaches and trends such as these, further discussion is needed to clarify best practices as well as any associated strengths and weaknesses.

Elements of Sustainable Solar Water Pumping System Design Synthesis and presentations from 2015 WEDC Conference Workshop

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Author: ARMSTRONG, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Water Missions International

Technological advances over the past decade have made solar water pumping a viable option for potable water service delivery in rural settings. Solar pumping is an especially attractive alternative when poor groundwater quality or high population density and growth limit the applicability of boreholes fitted with handpumps. However, globally-accessible resources that specifically speak to the various technological, financial, social, environmental, institutional, and operational elements of sustainable solar pumping designs are limited. This workshop provides participants with an opportunity to explore various aspects of holistic design of solar pumping systems through guided group discussion.

Human rights to water and Self-Supply – Potential and challenges RWSN webinar on 24th November 2015 – Key messages and generic findings

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Author: Olschewski
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

Summary of generic messages:
1. The Human Right to water does not favour or exclude any management model for provision of safe water to all. The important objective is that eventually all people have universal access, that core principles are adhered to and that there is no difference in quality and access no matter which supply approach is used.
2. Self-supply is aligned and compatible with the concept of progressive realisation of the Human Right to Water.
3. Government’s role in Self-supply is to identify where and when Self-supply is an appropriate option to provide access to safe water. Additionally government should provide technical support, monitoring, financial support (e.g. subsidies), establish an enabling environment and recognize Self-supply as one viable option to achieving the Human Right to Water.
4. In Self-supply, like in other approaches, challenges might occur around affordability, water quality, monitoring, and long term sustainability. The Government must support people moving up the water ladder but also take preventive measures to avoid negative impacts from Self-supply.
5. To further scale up Self-supply subsidies might be an adequate means to allow poor people to move up the water ladder in incremental steps. Subsidies need to be designed and provided in a smart way, without distortion of the local economy. If subsidies are provided there is need to find sustainable funding sources.
6. As Self-supply will not be an option in all regions, and because the cost of using the community managed approach alone will be far too high, a blended approach using boreholes, piped schemes and Self-supply sources (using different technologies) might be the best way to go for achieving universal access in rural areas.

Strengthening the Domestic Drilling Industry Lessons from the Mozambique

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher:
Institution: WSP

Improving water supply in rural areas of Mozambique continues to be a major challenge. The highly dispersed rural population and difficult hydrogeology make even the most basic level of service--a borehole with a hand pump—accessible to only about half of the rural population. Even when basic access is available, 17.1 percent
of hand pumps are out of service at any one time, rising to nearly 30 percent in the Northern provinces.

With the support of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), water drillers in Mozambique began tackling this challenge through the creation of the Mozambique Drilling Association (APM). As the first of its kind, the association introduced several key initiatives to boost the capacity of drillers and to strengthen their voice to the government. The purpose of this learning note is to share lessons learned from WSP’s support to APM and to highlight additional areas of growth and development for the association.

Multiple Use Water Services - Potential and Challenges for Rural Dwellers (English/Francais/Espanol). E-Discussion on Multiple use water services, 28th of April – 24th of May 2014.

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Author: MUS Group/RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Multiple Use Water Services - Potential and Challenges for Rural Dwellers.
E-Discussion on Multiple use water services, 28th of April – 24th of May 2014.

Service d’eau à usage multiple - Potentiel et défis pour les habitants en milieu rural.
Discussion en ligne sur les services d’eau à usage multiple, le 28 Avril – 24 Mai 2014.

Servicios de uso múltiple del agua - El potencial y los desafíos para su adopción en áreas rurales
Discusión electrónica sobre los servicios de uso múltiple del agua, del 28 de abril al 24 de mayo de 2014

https://dgroups.org/RWSN/selfsupply/mus/join

Technical Guidelines for Construction and Maintenance of Hand Dug Wells Sierra Leone

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Author: Ministry of Water Resources
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water Resources, Republic of Sierra Leone
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources

This document represents the official guidelines of the Government of Sierra Leone on the issue of the construction and maintenance of hand dug wells.

This publication is intended for water sector practitioners and managers who coordinate and oversee water supply service delivery. It is the outcome of a partnership between the Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), and a number of implementing agencies working in the WASH sector in Sierra Leone.

If this publication can contribute to permanent and lasting water points in Sierra Leone, and better standards of construction, then it will have achieved its purpose.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Mapping of WASH sustainability tools WORKING PAPER 10

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Author: SCHWEITZER, R., GRAYSON, C. and H. LOCKWOOD
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IRC/Triple-S
Institution: Aguaconsult

This working paper contains the findings of a mapping of WASH sustainability tools currently in use, as well as the outcomes of a survey looking into demand: in short assessing the current state of the market for sustainability tools and identifying the gaps.

The assessment included a review of over 220 tools and presents the 25 tools with clear content and a methodology for understanding, measuring, or predicting sustainability in short practical summary sheets (1-pagers). These sheets can also be downloaded individually here .

This working paper complements an earlier Triple-S working paper that focused on five tools used by development partners to assess programmatic sustainability
( Boulenouar et al., 2013 ). The information presented in both working papers was the subject of a two part webinar series hosted by Global Water Challenge (GWC), WASH Advocates, Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN), IRC, and Aguaconsult in March 2014.

The research described in this paper was carried out by Aguaconsult, an implementing partner of IRC in Triple-S.

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established Dgroups.org as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

Optimising Road Development for Groundwater Recharge and Retention Final Workshop

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Author: Meta Meta Research / Mekelle University
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Meta Meta Research
Institution:

This is one of the 15 UPGro Catalyst Projects. This one looked at ways at which roads can be used to improve groundwater recharge in Ethiopia. Below are the presentations from the final project workshop which from this exciting project.

There are also links to some the final reports (filed separately).

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

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Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

The Water Point Mapping Updating Methodology A Guide by WaterAid Tanzania

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Author: WaterAid
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: WaterAid
Institution:

Accurate information on water points is critical in order to provide sufficient data for planning and budgeting. Clarity of data means that it can be used to identify priority areas for investment as well as ensuring sustainability of existing water point infrastructure. However, data needs to be kept up to data if it is to be useful.

The main purpose of this guide is to outline the basics of the updating process in an attempt to address the challenges associated with water point mapping process and allow the methodology to be replicated. The tool is a paper-based approach that follows the Government of Tanzania’s usual reporting hierarchy.

This guide reflects WaterAid Tanzania’s experience in pioneering Water Point Mapping updating in Tanzania. WaterAid has built up a reputation as an expert on WPM and has accumulated considerable experience through its involvement in a range of different mapping activities in East Africa and elsewhere.

RWSN Publication Catalogue January 2013 edition

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Author: FUREY, S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

This document is a comprehensive catalogue of RWSN publications, which can be found on the RWSN website. More recent publications are also available in hardcopy, please contact the RWSN Secretariat for details.

Short Course: Basic Hydrogeology and Borehole Siting Cost-Effective Boreholes

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Author: ADEKILE, D and THOMAS, M
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

This is the first in a series of short training courses to develop the capacity of practitioners with respect to borehole drilling. The course was first given in Sierra Leone in September 2013.

Tapping Treasure: Cost-Effective Boreholes in Sierra Leone (Project Report 3)

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Author: ADEKILE, D and THOMAS, M
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

In July 2013, the Ministry of Water Resources, with support of DFID through the WASH Facility launched an eight month project entitled “Tapping Treasure – Cost-Effective Boreholes in Sierra Leone”. This is the report of the short courses held in September 2013 on:
- Short course 1: Basic Hydrogeology and Borehole siting
- Short course 2: Procurement and Contract Administration and Costing and Pricing of Boreholes

Short Course: Procurement and Contract Administration and the Costing and Pricing of Boreholes Cost-Effective Boreholes

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Author: ADEKILE, D and THOMAS, M
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

This is the second in a series of short training courses to develop the capacity of practitioners with respect to borehole drilling. The course was first given in Sierra Leone in October 2013.

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