RWSN Resources

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Harnessing water point data to improve drinking water services

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Author: Dickinson, N., Knipschild, F., Magara, P. & G. Kwizera
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: WASHNote/IRC Uganda
Institution: Water and Development Alliance (WADA)

This document introduces what water point data are, why they are collected, and how they are used in “The Value of Water Point Data”. The chapter “A Deep Dive: The Case of Uganda” illustrates the use and progressive improvement of water point data in a country that is actively updating and publishing its National Water Atlas.

“From Water Point Data to Improved Water Services” provides an overview of how water point data can be used more effectively to measure services and water resources, strengthen the enabling environment, and improve coordination. It also reviews some innovative approaches under development, such as the remote monitoring of water points. Finally, “Recommendations” provides actionable guidance to a) national governments, b) local governments, c) NGOs and implementers, and d) donors and investors.

Rainwater Harvesting in Thailand: Learning from the World Champions RWSN Field Note 2016-1

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Author: Matthias Saladin
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This field note provides an overview and analysis of the historic developments of promoting Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) in Thailand between 1980 and 2015. Based on literature reviews and interviews with stakeholders a series of factors were identified which made the promotion of DRWH in Thailand an exceptionally successful example of diffusion of innovations. Among the key factors identified were policies, market structure, pre-existing habits, affordability, supply chain and climate. No single factor was decisive but several of them occurring simultaneously made it possible for an enabling environment to form and make the initiative flourish even after government funding ran out (most of the Thai Jars, which are most commonly used for rainwater storage, were actually delivered through the private sector and paid by the consumers).
In spite of its large-scale success, the Thai Jar Experience is not a blueprint for replication elsewhere but points out to the importance of cultural and economic aspects, as well as to an enabling environment in general.

Revues Sectorielles Conjointes sur l'eau, l'assainissement et l'hygiène (WASH) PRATIQUE D'USAGE DE LA BANQUE MONDIALE EN FAVEUR DE L'EAU: NOTE D'APPRENTISSAGE

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Author: DANERT, K, FUREY, S, MECHTA, M and GUPTA
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: WSP

L'amélioration de l'eau, l'assainissement et l'hygiène (WASH) dans les États à revenu faible ou intermédiaire, plus particulièrement les États fragiles, ou ceux qui souffrent de crises prolongées, est grand défi.
Au cours de la dernière décennie,les revues sectorielles conjointes (JSR) ont émergé comme un moyen de coordination des parties prenantes,d'apprentissage commun,de collecte de données, de prise de décision et de construction de consensus, de partenariats et de mandats d'action. Les JSR offrent une opportunité de renforcement de la gouvernance et d'augmentation d'impact.
Dans les pays où plusieurs bailleurs de fonds financent la WASH et ne fournissent pas un appui budgétaire général, les JSR sont l'un des rares mécanismes pouvant susciter la responsabilité mutuelle au niveau des pays

Water and Sanitation Services: Achieving Sustainable Outcomes with Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean World Bank Toolkit, Report No: AUS11215

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Author: The World Bank Group
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank Group
Institution:

The objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical guidance and operational tools to promote the inclusive delivery of sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services to Indigenous peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

HOW TO ESTABLISH A FULL COST RECOVERY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ? WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS FOR SUCCESS AND REPLICATION ? SDC Briefing Note

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Author: ISW/SDC
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA)
Institution:

This Briefing Note outlines the results from more than 15 years of experience in both Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the International Secretariat for Water (ISW) funded by the Swiss Agency for Development & Cooperation (SDC).
The note outlines the ways in which cost recovery has been been acheived and social tariffs set locally. However when it comes to scaling up there are certainly many hindering factors, not the least being the centralised structure of the States apparatus and deciding power.
It is essential to overcome political tariff challenges as there is resistance that can emerge from a heavy centralised past and the belief that at local level things cannot work properly without keeping them under central control.

An Evaluation of the BluePump in Kenya and Gambia

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Author: Foster, T. & McSorely, B.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: University of Technology Sydney & Oxfam
Institution: Institute for Sustainable Futures

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Fairwater BluePump, an emerging rural water supply technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Claims about the BluePump’s durability and minimal maintenance requirements have provoked significant interest within the rural water sector. This evaluation set out to assess the suitability of the BluePump as a rural water supply technology, taking into account its operational performance, the experiences of water users, the views of local stakeholders, and the broader contextual factors that impinge upon its sustainability.

Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services Partnering with the Private Sector

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Author: Menzies I.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: WSP
Institution: The World Bank

The objective of this Guidance Note is to offer practical, experience-based guidance to those considering or currently
engaging in PPP in the water sector, and to provide a basic understanding of water PPPs and the PPP cycle to better
inform dialogue with governments that are considering PPP arrangements.

It builds on the experience of WSP in supporting PPP reforms in developing countries, especially through the domestic private sector. Key stakeholders in this dialogue include government at all levels, service providers, policy makers, customers, civil society, and professionals.

Many water PPP engagements in developing countries are more domestically oriented and at a smaller scale than international transactions. This Note outlines a rationale and approach for launching a water sector PPP so that government leaders and private sector providers can have informed discussions about the path forward should they choose to explore this approach in their countries.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Investment in rural water supply delivers results Briefing note on key findings from the Joint Monitoring Programme 2015 report1 relating to rural water supply

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Author: RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher:
Institution: RWSN

New figures from the Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) of UNICEF and the World Health Organisation (WHO) show that most countries have achieved substantial progress towards achieving universal access to water for their citizens.

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion RWSN Publication 2015-1

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Author: MacArthur, J.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries).

UPGro Catalyst projects A synthesis and individual project activities and results

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Author: UPGro
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

This report summarises the contribution to groundwater knowledge of the 15 catalyst projects funded through the UPGro programme between 2013 and 2014, plus the The Africa Groundwater Atlas and Literature Archive.
The projects worked in 12 individual countries (see next page - some countries had more than one project), and three had an Africa-wide focus or component.
At the time of writing two of the 15 projects are still running (Velasquez-Orta and Colombo). The Groundwater Atlas project will also continue as a major archive of African groundwater information.

Water Source Protection Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects.

Short report on Self-supply Seminar at the “My Water-my business” event 20th March 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Author: OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

In the Growth & Transformation Plan of Ethiopia specific sector targets are defined for improving access and services for WASH. A comprehensive implementation framework has been developed and endorsed, the One WASH National program, which guides all actors of the Ethiopian WASH sector in their collective efforts for implementation of WASH related activities towards the defined targets. Within the One WASH National program Self-supply is listed as an option additional to communal water supply to provide access to water for households or group of households.

This input paper summarizes some reflections from selected inputs provided at the seminar on 20th March on Self-supply and its acceleration.

Managing Cash Reserves for Capital Maintenance Expenses Synthesis and presentations from 2015 WEDC Conference Workshop

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Author: ARMSTRONG, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Water Missions International

When service providers succeed in raising considerable sums or even recovering full life-cycle costs associated with ongoing water service delivery through tariffs and user fees they are often faced with a different sort of challenge: managing sizeable cash reserves that are intended to be used for future capital maintenance expenses. Questionable long-term reliability of local financial institutions can lead to investment in diversified assets (e.g. insurance systems, real estate, spare parts, and even livestock). In addition, pressure to use portions of cash reserves in ways that are thought to be more productive, such as in system upgrades or expansion, can lead to funds being used sooner than originally intended. Although recent efforts by IRC, RWSN and others have helped to identify approaches and trends such as these, further discussion is needed to clarify best practices as well as any associated strengths and weaknesses.

Unlocking the Potential of Information Communications Technology to Improve Water and Sanitation Services WSP Report

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Author: NDAW, M. F.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: The World Bank
Institution: Water & Sanitation Program

This knowledge product is a summary of ndings from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Study “Unlocking the Potential of ICT Services in the Water and Sanitation Sector”. e study builds on and complements the World Bank’s Africa Regional Strategy (2011) as well as the World Bank Group’s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategy (2012). It further complements the E-Transform Africa series, a collaboration between the African Development Bank, the World Bank and the African Union, which captures the existing use of ICTs in six sectors (agriculture, climate change, education, health, nancial services, government) and two cross-cutting themes (regional trade and integration; ICT competitiveness).

Human rights to water and Self-Supply – Potential and challenges RWSN webinar on 24th November 2015 – Key messages and generic findings

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Author: Olschewski
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

Summary of generic messages:
1. The Human Right to water does not favour or exclude any management model for provision of safe water to all. The important objective is that eventually all people have universal access, that core principles are adhered to and that there is no difference in quality and access no matter which supply approach is used.
2. Self-supply is aligned and compatible with the concept of progressive realisation of the Human Right to Water.
3. Government’s role in Self-supply is to identify where and when Self-supply is an appropriate option to provide access to safe water. Additionally government should provide technical support, monitoring, financial support (e.g. subsidies), establish an enabling environment and recognize Self-supply as one viable option to achieving the Human Right to Water.
4. In Self-supply, like in other approaches, challenges might occur around affordability, water quality, monitoring, and long term sustainability. The Government must support people moving up the water ladder but also take preventive measures to avoid negative impacts from Self-supply.
5. To further scale up Self-supply subsidies might be an adequate means to allow poor people to move up the water ladder in incremental steps. Subsidies need to be designed and provided in a smart way, without distortion of the local economy. If subsidies are provided there is need to find sustainable funding sources.
6. As Self-supply will not be an option in all regions, and because the cost of using the community managed approach alone will be far too high, a blended approach using boreholes, piped schemes and Self-supply sources (using different technologies) might be the best way to go for achieving universal access in rural areas.

Multiple Use Water Services - Potential and Challenges for Rural Dwellers (English/Francais/Espanol). E-Discussion on Multiple use water services, 28th of April – 24th of May 2014.

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Author: MUS Group/RWSN
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Multiple Use Water Services - Potential and Challenges for Rural Dwellers.
E-Discussion on Multiple use water services, 28th of April – 24th of May 2014.

Service d’eau à usage multiple - Potentiel et défis pour les habitants en milieu rural.
Discussion en ligne sur les services d’eau à usage multiple, le 28 Avril – 24 Mai 2014.

Servicios de uso múltiple del agua - El potencial y los desafíos para su adopción en áreas rurales
Discusión electrónica sobre los servicios de uso múltiple del agua, del 28 de abril al 24 de mayo de 2014

https://dgroups.org/RWSN/selfsupply/mus/join

WASH Sector Performance Report 2013 - Liberia Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) Liberia

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Author: Government of the Republic of Liberia
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Government of the Republic of Liberia
Institution: Government of the Republic of Liberia

The Liberia Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sector have accomplished a major achievement in releasing this first Sector Performance Report (SPR) covering the period 2013 to 2014. The outcome of this report is a clear demonstration of unity in the face of fragmentation. The responsibility of solving problems associated with water resource management, water quality, waste water and WASH are many agency-focused and cross-cutting as well as technical and political.

Mapping of WASH sustainability tools WORKING PAPER 10

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Author: SCHWEITZER, R., GRAYSON, C. and H. LOCKWOOD
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IRC/Triple-S
Institution: Aguaconsult

This working paper contains the findings of a mapping of WASH sustainability tools currently in use, as well as the outcomes of a survey looking into demand: in short assessing the current state of the market for sustainability tools and identifying the gaps.

The assessment included a review of over 220 tools and presents the 25 tools with clear content and a methodology for understanding, measuring, or predicting sustainability in short practical summary sheets (1-pagers). These sheets can also be downloaded individually here .

This working paper complements an earlier Triple-S working paper that focused on five tools used by development partners to assess programmatic sustainability
( Boulenouar et al., 2013 ). The information presented in both working papers was the subject of a two part webinar series hosted by Global Water Challenge (GWC), WASH Advocates, Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN), IRC, and Aguaconsult in March 2014.

The research described in this paper was carried out by Aguaconsult, an implementing partner of IRC in Triple-S.

“What is the current wisdom on the best way to manage cash reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?” RWSN Discussion Synthesis

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

This document is a synthesis of an online discussion that took place in June 2014 on Dgroups (Management & Support Community) and on the "WSP-RWSN Webinar Discussions" LinkedIn group in response to the following question:

“In Tajikistan a multi-village piped water scheme is successfully collecting user fees from households. This has created a new problem: a sizable reserve. This would seem to be in line with the object of the tariff, however for covering the costs of a big item that may need replacing in the next 20 years or so this raises a challenge: there is increasing pressure to use those reserves in a more productive way (and some less productive ways) sooner. There is also the risk that inflation will mean that a good amount of money today will not be worth the same in 10-20 years when it is needed for a big capital expenditure. From WASHcost and other work, what is the current wisdom on the best way to manage reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?”

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