RWSN Resources

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Harnessing water point data to improve drinking water services

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Author: Dickinson, N., Knipschild, F., Magara, P. & G. Kwizera
Year of Publishing: 2017
Publisher: WASHNote/IRC Uganda
Institution: Water and Development Alliance (WADA)

This document introduces what water point data are, why they are collected, and how they are used in “The Value of Water Point Data”. The chapter “A Deep Dive: The Case of Uganda” illustrates the use and progressive improvement of water point data in a country that is actively updating and publishing its National Water Atlas.

“From Water Point Data to Improved Water Services” provides an overview of how water point data can be used more effectively to measure services and water resources, strengthen the enabling environment, and improve coordination. It also reviews some innovative approaches under development, such as the remote monitoring of water points. Finally, “Recommendations” provides actionable guidance to a) national governments, b) local governments, c) NGOs and implementers, and d) donors and investors.

Procurement, Costing & Pricing and Contract Management of Borehole Construction - Zambia Short Course Report Striving for Professionalism in Cost Effective Boreholes in Zambia

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Author: ADEKILE, D and DANERT, K
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

The Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) Zambia and the Water and Resources Management Authority (WARMA) weresupported by the cooperation of UNICEF and Skat Foundation to strengthen capacity in the country with respect to siting, drilling, supervision, procurement and contract management. The support included the delivery of a five-day short course to 38 participants in Zambia on drilling procurement, costing & pricing and contract management. This report presents the proceedings and outcomes of the course.

Effective Joint Sector Reviews for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) A Study and Guidance - 2016

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Author: DANERT, K, FUREY, S, MECHTA, M and GUPTA, S
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: World Bank
Institution: World Bank

This is the first consolidated and referenced multicountry study of Water or Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Joint Sector Reviews (JSRs). The study report and associated Learning Note and Poster provide an understanding of JSR processes and practical guidance on how to introduce and improve them. The study sets out a methodology in the form of visual checklists to reflect and take stock of WASH JSR processes. This could also form the foundation for subsequent cross-country comparisons of the JSR process.

The publications provide an analysis of JSRs as well as practical guidance on how to introduce and effectively manage them. The initial focus of the work was on JSRs in fragile states. However, the contested definitions of a fragile state, arbitrary thresholds as well as the realization that there are common issues with respect to JSRs in nonfragile countries led to a widening of the scope of countries studied. Notably, all countries included are considerably donor dependant for WASH. The study considered 25 countries, and found that between 2001 and 2015, WASH JSRs had taken place in 19 of them.

Note that these documents are review copies.

Rainwater Harvesting in Thailand: Learning from the World Champions RWSN Field Note 2016-1

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Author: Matthias Saladin
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

This field note provides an overview and analysis of the historic developments of promoting Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) in Thailand between 1980 and 2015. Based on literature reviews and interviews with stakeholders a series of factors were identified which made the promotion of DRWH in Thailand an exceptionally successful example of diffusion of innovations. Among the key factors identified were policies, market structure, pre-existing habits, affordability, supply chain and climate. No single factor was decisive but several of them occurring simultaneously made it possible for an enabling environment to form and make the initiative flourish even after government funding ran out (most of the Thai Jars, which are most commonly used for rainwater storage, were actually delivered through the private sector and paid by the consumers).
In spite of its large-scale success, the Thai Jar Experience is not a blueprint for replication elsewhere but points out to the importance of cultural and economic aspects, as well as to an enabling environment in general.

Water and Sanitation Services: Achieving Sustainable Outcomes with Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean World Bank Toolkit, Report No: AUS11215

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Author: The World Bank Group
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: The World Bank Group
Institution:

The objective of this Toolkit is to provide practical guidance and operational tools to promote the inclusive delivery of sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services to Indigenous peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

HOW TO ESTABLISH A FULL COST RECOVERY WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM ? WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS FOR SUCCESS AND REPLICATION ? SDC Briefing Note

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Author: ISW/SDC
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA)
Institution:

This Briefing Note outlines the results from more than 15 years of experience in both Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the International Secretariat for Water (ISW) funded by the Swiss Agency for Development & Cooperation (SDC).
The note outlines the ways in which cost recovery has been been acheived and social tariffs set locally. However when it comes to scaling up there are certainly many hindering factors, not the least being the centralised structure of the States apparatus and deciding power.
It is essential to overcome political tariff challenges as there is resistance that can emerge from a heavy centralised past and the belief that at local level things cannot work properly without keeping them under central control.

Professional Water Well Drilling A UNICEF Guidance Note

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Author: Danert K., Gesti Canuto J.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Unicef

This guidance note provides practical guidance for organisations and individuals that are trying to raise the professionalism of groundwater development in Africa. The guidance note is mainly concerned with rural and small towns’ water supplies but is mindful of the huge challenges faced by supplies in many growing African cities dealing with problems of groundwater quantity and quality.

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21914.64964

An Evaluation of the BluePump in Kenya and Gambia

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Author: Foster, T. & McSorely, B.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: University of Technology Sydney & Oxfam
Institution: Institute for Sustainable Futures

This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Fairwater BluePump, an emerging rural water supply technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Claims about the BluePump’s durability and minimal maintenance requirements have provoked significant interest within the rural water sector. This evaluation set out to assess the suitability of the BluePump as a rural water supply technology, taking into account its operational performance, the experiences of water users, the views of local stakeholders, and the broader contextual factors that impinge upon its sustainability.

SDC Guideline for sustainable groundwater resource management Swiss Humanitarian Aid Reports and Papers (SHARP Series: GW/2016/1)

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Author: BUSSARD, T.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: SDC
Institution:

The main objective of the present guideline is to ensure the protection of groundwater intended for human consumption. Consequently, it is mainly focused on the protection of groundwater sources (e.g. pumping well, tapped springs). However, although the protection of sensitive areas for drinking water supply must be given high priority, good practices have to be implemented at a larger scale too, in order to sustain the resources as well as the aquatic ecosystems: awareness must be built in order to avoid any contamination of the water cycle (quality aspect) and to preserve water resources (quantity aspect), in particular within the aquifer areas

Delivering Universal and Sustainable Water Services Partnering with the Private Sector

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Author: Menzies I.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: WSP
Institution: The World Bank

The objective of this Guidance Note is to offer practical, experience-based guidance to those considering or currently
engaging in PPP in the water sector, and to provide a basic understanding of water PPPs and the PPP cycle to better
inform dialogue with governments that are considering PPP arrangements.

It builds on the experience of WSP in supporting PPP reforms in developing countries, especially through the domestic private sector. Key stakeholders in this dialogue include government at all levels, service providers, policy makers, customers, civil society, and professionals.

Many water PPP engagements in developing countries are more domestically oriented and at a smaller scale than international transactions. This Note outlines a rationale and approach for launching a water sector PPP so that government leaders and private sector providers can have informed discussions about the path forward should they choose to explore this approach in their countries.

What’s Working, Where, and for How Long A 2016 Water Point Update to the RWSN (2009) statistics

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Author: Banks, B. & S. G. Furey
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: GWC/Skat

• An average of 78% of water points are functional across the 11 countries analyzed.

• The high failure rates early after installation are troubling: almost 15% after one year and 25% of water points are non-functional by their fourth year after installation. This indicates widespread problems with poor quality water point installation, due to a range of problems that may include professionalism and skills around contracts, construction and supervision; borehole siting; lack of quality control of hardware; or lack of post-construction monitoring and problem resolution.

• Handpumps are often singled out as technology that fails, but analysis of other water point types show similar functionality levels, and that tens of thousands of handpumps are providing a service

This poster was peer-reviewed and presented at the 7th RWSN Forum in Abidjan, Cote'Ivoire 2016.

It replaces "Handpump Data 2009 Selected Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa" (2009)

Manual Drilling Compendium 2015 RWSN Publication 2015-2

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Author: DANERT K.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat
Institution: Skat

Manual drilling refers to several drilling methods that rely on human energy to construct a borehole and complete a water supply. The various techniques can be used in areas where formations are quite soft and groundwater is relatively shallow.

Manual drilling can provide safe drinking water. The equipment can easily be transported to remote, or difficult to serve populations which would otherwise be left behind. The lower costs compared to machine drilling are appreciated by households, businesses and governments. Manual drilling also provides local employment.

Manual drilling methods are being used to provide water for drinking and other domestic needs at least 36 countries around the world. In some places, manual drilling methods are well established.

The compendium provides a useful overview for those wishing to further examine the impacts and challenges of manual drilling, and, more importantly, improve practices on the ground. It is hoped that the document will spur others to undertake fur-ther studies as well as research to document stories and analyse the promotion, uptake and use of manually drilled boreholes. In addition, the compendium should also enable those promoting manual drilling to realise that they are certainly not alone in their endeavours!

Rain water harvesting in the homestead

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Aquamor
Institution: Aquamor

Rainwater harvesting is the very well established concept of collecting rainwater for domestic use and for plant irrigation. Most commonly the rain is collected from the roofs of houses and passes down the gutter into a tank, where it is held before use. Its use will continue after the rainy season is over. The concept has been known since ancient times being practiced by the Romans and before. Many fine works have been written about rainwater harvesting – none better in Southern Africa than the work of John Gould working in Botswana. More recently the RWSN has played particular attention to it.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Handpump Standardisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Seeking a Champion RWSN Publication 2015-1

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Author: MacArthur, J.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: RWSN
Institution:

Handpump standardisation is the formal or informal mechanism that governs the varieties of community handpumps used within a particular country. In a handful of countries this also includes stand-ard handpump designs. With over a million handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa and new installations every day, handpump standardisation is still vital for the policy and practices of governments and implementing organisations. While rural water practitioners are polarised about the future of formal standardisation, the extent of informal standardisation is of significant importance to the sustain-ability of handpumps across the continent. Of the thirty-five countries in sub-Saharan using handpumps, formal standardisation has emerged in fifteen through regulations (nine countries), and endorsements (six countries). However in the remaining countries, informal standardisation determines what handpumps are installed where, either through recommendations (fourteen countries), or de facto standardisation (six countries).

Chad’s Growing Manual Drilling Industry

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Author: DANERT K.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

In Chad, manual drilling is a growing industry. This report provides an overview of manual drilling in Chad today. The report is intended to stimulate interest in more research, documentation and action regarding the diffusion of manual drilling within the country and its implications. The technology is increasing in popularity and spreading within Chad, including in the capital N’Djamena. Private enterprises and non-governmental organisations are promoting manual drilling and water users are investing in their own manually drilled wells.

Water Source Protection Exploring ways to incentivise citizens and organisations to manage shared water resources in a fair, equitable way.

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: RWSN

What is a Water Source Protection Plan?
A Water Source Protection Plan can be an extension of Water Safety Planning. The plan is an agreed statement between stakeholders that establishes objectives, actions, responsibilities and funding. However, it should go beyond the needs of the water infrastructure and actively look for win-win opportunities:

Key Messages
Important to sensitise land and water users in catchments to the impacts of their actions on others; aligning their self-interests with the wider collective interest is vital for avoiding conflict and protecting the rights of poorest, and the quality of the natural environment.

Bottom-up planning is essential where conventional permitting, monitoring and enforcement is ineffective or under-resourced.

More evidence is needed to show how effective locally-focused water source protection and resource management are when scaled up beyond resource-intensive pilot projects.

Short report on Self-supply Seminar at the “My Water-my business” event 20th March 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Author: OLSCHEWSKI, A.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution:

In the Growth & Transformation Plan of Ethiopia specific sector targets are defined for improving access and services for WASH. A comprehensive implementation framework has been developed and endorsed, the One WASH National program, which guides all actors of the Ethiopian WASH sector in their collective efforts for implementation of WASH related activities towards the defined targets. Within the One WASH National program Self-supply is listed as an option additional to communal water supply to provide access to water for households or group of households.

This input paper summarizes some reflections from selected inputs provided at the seminar on 20th March on Self-supply and its acceleration.

Framework & Handbook for the Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supply Services, Northern Bahr El Ghazal, South Sudan A Politically Enabled Public Private Partnership

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Author: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan
Institution: Ministry of Water, Cooperatives and Rural Development, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Republic of South Sudan

The “Northern Bahr el Ghazal Framework and Handbook for Operation and Maintenance of Rural Water Supplies” sets out how to ensure that rural and urban dwellers benefit from affordable drinking water ser-vices that are effectively managed, protected and maintained. The Framework and Handbook sets out common procedures and provides practical guidance for the planning & implementation of water supply improvements in Northern Bahr el Ghazal (NBeG) state. These proce-dures are to be adhered to by all government and non-government agencies striving to increase or sustain drinking water supply services in NBeG state through boreholes fitted with handpumps.

Self-supply News - Ethiopia

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Author: SSWG
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: WAS-RoPSS Project
Institution:

Self Supply News is a bi-monthly newsletter issued by Self Supply Working Group (SSWG) of Ethiopia, which is a forum of government institutions and development partners. JICA WAS-RoPSS Project is currently taking lead to compile this newsletter.

{Editor's note: if you have copies of earlier editions, which we can archive here then please contact us}

Hand drilling a shallow tube-well in Zimbabwe and fitting a simple “Bailer-bucket” for water lifting

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Author: MORGAN, P.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: Aquamor
Institution: Aquamor

The construction of the lighter duty, simple hand operated drilling rig has been described in another manual and was designed for drilling shallow tube wells in softer soil formations, which occur in some areas of Zimbabwe. Currently the drilling stems extend to a maximum of 12m. Staff members of the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare are familiar with local shallow ground water conditions in Zimbabwe. A depth of 12m is suitable for the use of this simple rig in combination with simple water raising devices like the “Bailer-Bucket” Pump and Blair Pump.
This manual describes the test drilling of a tube-well in Epworth, near Harare, Zimbabwe and the construction and fitting of a PVC casing and filter mechanism. It also describes the construction of a simple “Bailer-Bucket” pump and the head works at the head of the tube well. Of particular significance is the part played by the family itself by making the water raising device – a tubular bucket fitted with non-return valve and handle. The design of the “pump” is very simple and easily made within the home. The chances of continued operation and maintenance are this considerably improved.

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