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Drilling Boreholes for Handpumps Working Paper 2 on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation

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Author: WURZEL, P.
Year of Publishing: 2001
Publisher: Skat
Institution: RWSN

This booklet seeks to suggest ways in which funds can be better used for making safe water available to the poor by illustrating how drilling costs can be reduced without compromising water quality, water quantity, or the productive life of the borehole. These arguments are directed towards the rural water supply sector as a whole. Those directly addressed are primarily decision makers, government civil servants, planners and implementers of water projects who are not experts in drilling, as well as technical people, project leaders, technical aid personnel etc. This publication is neither a detailed drilling manual nor a methodology of drilling methods.

The author draws on his extensive experience as a member of the UNICEF Water and Environmental Sanitation community. He hopes that his views and proposals will be a catalyst for change, and that this contribution will stimulate interest in experimenting with ideas on low cost drilling of boreholes for handpumps.

WASHTech Burkina embedding and learning alliances progress to date and challenges to address WASHTech report: Burkina Faso

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Author: WSA
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: WASHTech Project
Institution: Water and Sanitation for Africa

This report describes the learning alliances and their development in the WASHTech project in Burkina Faso. It provides answers to questions regarding five key elements of alliance development: essence, arborescence, presence, resilience and evidence. The information presented in this report was gathered through interviews and Focus group discussion where: Direction des Etudes et de l’Information sur l’Eau (DEIE), DGRE, DGAEUE WaterAid and WSA were represented during the TIP workshop in April, 26th 2013.

Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Adaptation in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Nicaragua Environment & Water Resources Occasional Paper Series

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

Climate change is at the top of the development agenda in Central America. This region, together with the Caribbean, is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change in Latin America. Climate change is manifesting itself through higher average temperatures and more frequent droughts that result in higher water stress, and through the rising frequency of extreme weather events such as tropical storms, hurricanes, floods and landslides, all of which pose significant challenges in the rural water supply and sanitation sector. The paper starts with a review of the historic data on temperature and precipitation trends in Central America and particularly at the regional level in Nicaragua. The data reveal a clear trend of the growing climate variability, increased water stress for crops, and greater frequency of extreme weather events. The rising intensity and frequency of ex-treme weather events is among the most critical risks to the region's development agenda, and they translate into high economic losses. This paper examines the impacts and implications of potential climate change on water resources in Nicaragua and makes key recommendations to integrate climate change and rural water supply and sanitation policies and programs in a way that increase resilience to current and future climate conditions.
DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Engaging Non-state Providers in Rural Water Supply Services Documentation of Experiences in India

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

Taking an integrated approach to the country's rural water supply issues, Government of India's (GoI's) National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) focusses on the key aspects of source and system sustainability. System sustainability is inextricably linked to both technical and financial aspects of operations of rural water supply schemes. A key plank of NRDWP's approach as well as that of the sector reform project that preceded it is the devolution of Operations and Maintenance (O&M) functions, particularly related to distribution at the village level, to Gram Panchayats (GPs), or local government entities, through the formation of Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs). However, the lack of substantive community engagement in planning and implementation of schemes as well as capacity constraints in GPs has limited the spread and implementation of this approach. As reported in a recent study for the Planning Commission (PC, 2010), only a fourth of GPs surveyed reported VWSCs and less than one percent of the respondents were aware of the VWSCs' existence.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Multi-Village Pooling Project in Indonesia Handbook for Community-Based Water Supply Organizations

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2011
Publisher: World Bank
Institution:

The book discusses basic concepts on key topics to managing a small piped water system ideally for up to 1,000 households. It presents tools that can be adapted by Community-Based Water Organizations (CBOs) for use in their operations, such as forms, checklists and procedural guidelines. Illustrative examples have also been compiled from the experiences of the district local governments, support organizations and CBOs operating in East and West Java, who participated in the Multi-Village Pooling (MVP) Project. This toolkit seeks to compile a set of ready resources for organizations supporting Indonesian CBOs and CBOs themselves, which was not previously available despite many years of rural water investment projects. The book introduces fundamental concepts in an easy to-understand way, so that a number of discussions have been simplified. This will give users a basic understanding enough to seek further resources or references or advice from experts, which is encouraged.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Strengthening the Domestic Drilling Industry Lessons from the Mozambique

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Author: World Bank
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher:
Institution: WSP

Improving water supply in rural areas of Mozambique continues to be a major challenge. The highly dispersed rural population and difficult hydrogeology make even the most basic level of service--a borehole with a hand pump—accessible to only about half of the rural population. Even when basic access is available, 17.1 percent
of hand pumps are out of service at any one time, rising to nearly 30 percent in the Northern provinces.

With the support of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), water drillers in Mozambique began tackling this challenge through the creation of the Mozambique Drilling Association (APM). As the first of its kind, the association introduced several key initiatives to boost the capacity of drillers and to strengthen their voice to the government. The purpose of this learning note is to share lessons learned from WSP’s support to APM and to highlight additional areas of growth and development for the association.

Developing low-cost household water supply options: the potential of Self Supply in Ethiopia 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009

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Author: WORKNEH, P. S., DEVERILL, P. A. and A. G. WOLDESELASSIE
Year of Publishing: 2009
Publisher: WEDC - Water, Engineering and Development Centre
Institution:

Ethiopia has launched a Universal Access Plan (UAP) to achieve safe water supply and sanitation for the country’s 77 million people by 2012. This would mean providing safe water service to 50.9 million new users in just 7 years. The government recently reviewed the progress of UAP and concluded that it would be challenging to achieve its targets with the existing implementation approach. The review strongly recommended that low-cost options need to be pursued to accelerate progress.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

TAF (Step 2.1): Cost Calculation Assessment Support Tool

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Author: WOODE, P. A., NYARKO, K. B. and B. DWUMFOUR-ASARE
Year of Publishing: 2013
Publisher: WASHTech Project
Institution: KNUST

This costing spreadsheet is an attachment to the TAF. It is prepared to facilitate the analysis of affordability. The spreadsheet is to be populated with cost data collected on the WASH technology from the field work. Purple color indicates where data can be entered.

3rd HTN International Workshop, India - Proceedings Government and Civil Society Partnership

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Author: WISHART, G.
Year of Publishing: 2000
Publisher: RWSN (incl. HTN)
Institution: Skat

This document reports the proceedings of the Network for Cost Effective Technologies for Water Supply and Sanitation (HTN) Workshop held in Hyderabad, India, 6-10 March 2000.

International Conference on Manual Irrigation Proceedings HTN Working Paper: WP 01/96

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Author: WISHART, G.
Year of Publishing: 1995
Publisher: RWSN (incl. HTN)
Institution: Skat

This document reports the proceedings of the International Conference on Manual Irrigation held September 4-8, 1995. The conference took place at the Toshali Sands Hotel in Puri, India and included field visits to manual irrigation sites in the state of Orissa.

Uganda’s Water Sector Development: Towards Sustainable Systems HTN Working Paper: WP 02/96

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Author: WISHART, G.
Year of Publishing: 1996
Publisher: RWSN (incl. HTN)
Institution: Skat

This is a story of success in the development of rural water supply, a difficult sector in which to deliver cost-effective, sustainable results. It is a story of success in the public sector in Africa, a continent with few reasons to celebrate the achievements of its civil administrations.

Reducing Inequalities in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) A synthesis of experiences and lessons discussed in the RWSN Equality, Non-discrimination and Inclusion (ENDI) Group 2015

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Author: Wilbur J., Norman R., Huggett C.
Year of Publishing: 2016
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: RWSN

Between October and November 2015 the Rural Water Supply Network’s Equality, Non-discrimination and Inclusion (ENDI) theme enjoyed lively e-discussions on Reducing Inequalities in WASH. This covered practical approaches to improve participation of everyone; inclusive infrastructure designs and information, guidance and support that exist on these. Two webinars were held on these topics, with presentations from World Vision, Messiah College, WaterAid, FCG International, and the University of Technology – Sydney . Disability, gender, menstrual hygiene management, rights to water and sanitation and school WASH from Mali, Niger, Tanzania, Nepal, Ghana, Timor-Leste and Vietnam were covered. During the e-discussions independent consultants and staff from the Church of Uganda, TEDDO, WaterAid, WEDC, Mzuzu University, the Honduran Association of Management Boards of Water Systems, Concern Worldwide, Auguaconsult, the University of Denver, the World Bank, Amref Health, Islamic Relief Worldwide, Messiah College and World Vision shared experiences. These were drawn from their or their organisation’s work in Uganda, Vietnam, Mali, Madagascar, Zambia, Nepal, Chad, Timor Leste, Tanzania, Niger, Honduras and Pakistan. Throughout the e-discussions and webinars the primary scope was rural water supply, but sanitation and hygiene were considered when relevant.

This report synthesises the online discussions, draws on relevant content from the webinars and highlights experiences and lessons learnt. It is not an extensive literature review, but does draw on existing literature beyond what was discussed during the e-discussions.

Consultation on Draft Long List of Goal, Target and Indicator Options for Future Global Monitoring of Water, Santiation and Hygiene WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation

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Author: WHO/UNICEF
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: WHO/UNICEF
Institution: WHO/UNICEF

In anticipation of a water goal in the future sustainable development goal (SDG) framework, the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) has initiated, at the global level, a consultative, technical process.

This will try to ensure that targets and indicators proposed to the UN General Assembly in September 2013 optimally reflect the state of the art in monitoring, represent the dual interests of the development and human rights communities and take on board lessons learned from the global monitoring experience during the MDG period.

This consultative document had been prepared to explain the background to this process. It provides a long list of potential targets and indicators – as well as formulations to be considered for the goal itself. It should be noted that this draft list is a first attempt by four different working groups to express what is desirable to monitor globally after 2015. The work of the four groups has not yet been through a process of consolidation. This is planned as a next step.

You can provide feedback via the JMP website (address below). If you have particular comments and ideas on rural water supply aspects, or the process itself, please let us know at the RWSN Secretariat, or through RWSN's Linkedin discussion group. Those of us on the groups are trying to make this process as partipative as possible.

Water Safety Planning for Small Communities Step-by-step risk management guidance for drinking-water supplies in small communities

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Author: WHO
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: World Health Organisation
Institution:

The WSP approach is designed to help a community manage health risks that could threaten its water supply. By following the WSP approach, community members identify and prioritize health risks and, where necessary, take steps, over time,to improve the safety of the water supply using available resources. WSPs are applicable for a range of scales and levels, and in different contexts. A WSP can be developed for all existing schemes, from point sources to piped systems, as well as for new supplies. In new schemes, it should be straightforward for the supporting agency to incorporate the WSP approach into initial community mobilization and project implementation.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Where does the water flow? Roads runoff, soil erosion, groundwater, livelihoods and poverty alleviation in Tigray, Ethiopia

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Author: Welle, K., R. Alba, J. Demenge, A. Addisu and K. Manjur
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Development Studies, University of Mekelle, Meta Meta Research
Institution:

The study is part of the UpGro project. Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro). Based on fieldwork conducted in 2014 in the semi‐arid region of Tigray, Ethiopia, this report explores the physical and socio‐economic impacts of road related surface and groundwater flows – and how people cope with and adapt to them. We argue that two distinctive objectives of improving road connectivity and improving water availability for irrigation – are linked and could be served by the same infrastructure, which we call multifunctional roads.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Testing The Waters A qualitative comparative analysis of the factors affecting success in rendering water services sustainable based on ICT reporting

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Author: Welle K., Williams J., Pearce J., Befani B.
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher:
Institution: Water Aid, IRC

The potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services in improving service delivery is well recognised. In the water sector, there has been a growing interest in supporting the sustainability of services in recent years. The sector has also witnessed an increase in ICT initiatives, including those that aim to improve and sustain water services. While there are a number of reviews that document different water sector ICT initiatives, the existing literature does not systematically consider the individual initiatives’ success or failure. The objective of this research is therefore to better understand the factors that facilitate and inhibit the success of ICT-based reporting to improve rural water supply sustainability.

Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes

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Author: WELL
Year of Publishing: 1998
Publisher: Department for International Development
Institution:

This Manual has been prepared as a tool to help improve DFID’s support for water supply and sanitation (WS&S) projects and programmes in developing countries. Its particular focus is on how DFID assistance can best meet the needs of the urban and rural poor for WS&S services. To facilitate the targeting of the poor reflects the objective of UK international development support set out in the White Paper on International Development ‘better education, health and opportunities for poor people’ — one of three objectives contributing to the general aim ‘the elimination of poverty in poor countries’.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Estimating Private Domestic Well Use in the United States: A Pilot Study in Oklahoma

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Author: WEAVER, J, MURRAY, A, KREMER, F, BLACKWOOD, K and MCELMURRY, A
Year of Publishing: 2015
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency
Institution: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Private domestic wells are not subject to the testing requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and are susceptible to contamination by natural and anthropogenic contaminants. For public health and planning purposes, the locations of high density of private domestic well (PDW) use need to be determined. A key resource is the 1990 U.S. Census where the source of water was a survey question, which led to a nationwide estimate of PDW usage. In this paper, methods are developed to estimate the areal density of PDW use in later years using readily accessible data including the 1990 census results. Because of abundant data on PDW locations and public water supplies, Oklahoma was used for a pilot project. Well logs reported to the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the addition of housing units provide the means to update the 1990 census estimates. Census results and housing unit data are available on the county, census tract, and census block group level. PWD density estimates were consistent among these scales, as were estimates based on wells added and net housing units. The completeness of reported well logs was tested by counts from neighborhoods with known reliance on PDWs. The results showed that a significant undercounting of logs exists, and the small scale of subdivisions relative to even census block groups causes the method estimates to be lower than subdivision PDW densities. The estimates, however, indicate locations where high densities of PDWs are expected.

The Water Point Mapping Updating Methodology A Guide by WaterAid Tanzania

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Author: WaterAid
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: WaterAid
Institution:

Accurate information on water points is critical in order to provide sufficient data for planning and budgeting. Clarity of data means that it can be used to identify priority areas for investment as well as ensuring sustainability of existing water point infrastructure. However, data needs to be kept up to data if it is to be useful.

The main purpose of this guide is to outline the basics of the updating process in an attempt to address the challenges associated with water point mapping process and allow the methodology to be replicated. The tool is a paper-based approach that follows the Government of Tanzania’s usual reporting hierarchy.

This guide reflects WaterAid Tanzania’s experience in pioneering Water Point Mapping updating in Tanzania. WaterAid has built up a reputation as an expert on WPM and has accumulated considerable experience through its involvement in a range of different mapping activities in East Africa and elsewhere.

Guidelines to Planning Sustainable Water Projects and Selecting Appropriate Technologies Water & Sanitation Rotarian Action Group

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Author: WASRAG
Year of Publishing: 2012
Publisher: Rotary International
Institution:

The Wasrag Technical Guideline—Guidelines for Planning Sustainable Water Projects and Selecting Appropriate Technologies (and its companion guidelines, Guidelines for Planning Sustainable Sanitation Projects and Selecting Appropriate Technologies, and Guidelines for Selection Sustainable Health and Hygiene Programs) is the first step in this new e-learning program. This document reviews how to— evaluate sources of water supply evaluate water quality evaluate and select appropriate treatment technologies plan and construct a project monitor performance of the constructed project
The document is designed for Rotarians with basic levels of understanding of water issues, yet it will lead the reader to advanced levels of system design and operation.



DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

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