RWSN Resources

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Water safety plan A field guide to improving drinking-water safety in small communities

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Author: RICKERT, B., SCHMOLL, O., RINEHOLD, A. and E. BARRENBERG
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: World Health Organisation
Institution:

The WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality recommend the water safety plan (WSP) approach as
the most effective way of ensuring continuous provision of safe drinking-water. The challenges related
to drinking-water supply in rural areas and small towns are of notable concern across the entire WHO
European Region, but the WSP approach has been proven to work effectively in small-scale water supplies.
This field guide aims to support WSP implementation in small communities by providing brief explanations
of the WSP process and practical templates for field use.

Mapping of WASH sustainability tools WORKING PAPER 10

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Author: SCHWEITZER, R., GRAYSON, C. and H. LOCKWOOD
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IRC/Triple-S
Institution: Aguaconsult

This working paper contains the findings of a mapping of WASH sustainability tools currently in use, as well as the outcomes of a survey looking into demand: in short assessing the current state of the market for sustainability tools and identifying the gaps.

The assessment included a review of over 220 tools and presents the 25 tools with clear content and a methodology for understanding, measuring, or predicting sustainability in short practical summary sheets (1-pagers). These sheets can also be downloaded individually here .

This working paper complements an earlier Triple-S working paper that focused on five tools used by development partners to assess programmatic sustainability
( Boulenouar et al., 2013 ). The information presented in both working papers was the subject of a two part webinar series hosted by Global Water Challenge (GWC), WASH Advocates, Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN), IRC, and Aguaconsult in March 2014.

The research described in this paper was carried out by Aguaconsult, an implementing partner of IRC in Triple-S.

“What is the current wisdom on the best way to manage cash reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?” RWSN Discussion Synthesis

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat

This document is a synthesis of an online discussion that took place in June 2014 on Dgroups (Management & Support Community) and on the "WSP-RWSN Webinar Discussions" LinkedIn group in response to the following question:

“In Tajikistan a multi-village piped water scheme is successfully collecting user fees from households. This has created a new problem: a sizable reserve. This would seem to be in line with the object of the tariff, however for covering the costs of a big item that may need replacing in the next 20 years or so this raises a challenge: there is increasing pressure to use those reserves in a more productive way (and some less productive ways) sooner. There is also the risk that inflation will mean that a good amount of money today will not be worth the same in 10-20 years when it is needed for a big capital expenditure. From WASHcost and other work, what is the current wisdom on the best way to manage reserves and to manage the risk of big CapManEx costs in the future?”

Handpumps: where now? A synthesis of online discussions (2012-2014)

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

In 2012, RWSN established Dgroups.org as its online electronic platform for membership and discussion. The groundwater and handpump groups have been among the most active communities. The number and depth of contributions has been rich, and several members have asked for a synthesis of the discussions. They main topics that emerged were:
1. Water Quality - particularly iron and pump corrosion
2. Procurement, Quality Control and Installation
3. Sustaining handpumps - what is the average lifespan of a handpump?
4. Handpump component failures and the need to redesign public domain designs
5. The politics of new pump designs: the Squirrel Cage Pump

Join the debate at on dgroups, using the links below.

Webinar Series 2014 (Water Point Mapping & Monitoring)

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution:

Webinar - 30th September 2014 - focus on Malawi - Presentations reflect on water point mapping practices, tools and technologies as well as policies. The webinar explores how the monitoring evolved, how data was, and is collected, analysed and used by a range of stakeholders. The three presentations are:

1) Steve Sugden, Water for People - What we did in Salima District in 2002
2) Thanasius Sitolo, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development – Water Point Mapping in Malawi since 2002
3) Sydney Byrns, Engineers without Borders - NGO support to government-led monitoring in Malawi

RWSN Webinar Start Guide & FAQ

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Author: FUREY S. G.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: RWSN
Institution: Skat Foundation

This is a short guide to help you take part in RWSN webinars. A webinar is a web-based seminar - an online presentation where people can log on and hear the speaker and see their slides, and have the opportunity to ask questions.

Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing water in Nigeria’s Megacity of Lagos and beyond

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Author: DANERT, K, ADEKILE, D and GESTI CANUTO, J
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Skat Foundation
Institution: Skat Foundation

The Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN) is continuing its work on cost-effective boreholes under its theme of Sustainable Groundwater Development. The network is supporting stakeholders to improve borehole drilling policies and practices. As part of this effort, UNICEF and Skat Foundation are collaborating on manual drilling in Africa. The 2012 to 2014 collaboration documented and facilitated exchange on the introduction and professionalization of manual drilling in more than 20 countries.

This report is about the role played by manually drilled boreholes in meeting water needs in Lagos city, Lagos State and more widely in Nigeria. By examining Nigeria, the report draws out key lessons for those who are promoting, or trying to regulate manual drilling in other countries. It is hoped that this report, and the accompanying photo/video documentary and blogs will trigger action to better support manual drilling efforts in Lagos, in Nigeria and in other countries.

Improving access to safe drinking water: Prospection for low-fluoride sources Brief report presenting main findings - Addis Ababa, August 2014

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Author: Meta Meta / Addis Ababa University
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Meta Meta Research
Institution:

This report presents the key findings from the UPGro catalyst project: "Improving access to safe drinking water_prospection for low-fluoride sources Groundwater". It covers the background of natural fluoride levels in groundwater in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley and looks at some defluoridation interventions, including the use of bone char. The costs, benefits and main findings and lessons are presented.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

An Assessment of the EMAS Pump and its Potential for Use in Household Water Systems in Uganda University of South Florida MSc Thesis

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Author: CARPENTER, J. D.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Institution:

Rural improved water supply coverage in Uganda has stagnated around 64% for a number of years and at this point more than 10 million rural people do not have access to an improved drinking water source. It has been recognized that progress toward improved water supply coverage and increased service levels may be gained through Government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) support of private investment in household and shared water supplies, commonly known as Self-supply.
There are indications that low-cost wells and underground rainwater tanks are applicable in many parts of Uganda and could be paired with an EMAS Pump to achieve significant affordability for Self-supply household water systems. Recommendations are provided in terms of the feasibility of introducing the EMAS Pump as a part of Self-supply strategies in Uganda.

Principles for Borehole Construction and Rehabilitation in Sierra Leone

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Author: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone
Institution: Ministry of Water Resources of Sierra Leone

This document represents the official guidelines of the Government of Sierra Leone on the issue of the construction and rehabilitation of boreholes.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Développement de l’accès durable à l’eau souterraine: utilisation, protection, amélioration Publication 2014-3

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Author: FUREY, S
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Rural Water Supply Network
Institution: Rural Water Supply Network

La présente publication du Réseau pour l’approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural (RWSN) souhaite mieux faire comprendre l’importance cruciale que revêtent les eaux souterraines et souligner les risques qui pèsent sur leur pérennité. Elle s’adresse aux responsables politiques, aux décideurs, aux partenaires gouvernementaux et au grand public. Elle prône une utilisation responsable des eaux souterraines et met en garde contre les abus. Elle encourage les usagers à protéger et à améliorer ces ressources précieuses afin de servir les intérêts à long terme des communautés les plus vulnérables ayant principalement recours aux pompes manuelles.

Water and Environment Sector Performance Report 2014 Government of Uganda, Ministry of Water and Environment

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Author:
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher:
Institution:

Manual for Accelerating Self Supply Water Supply & Sanitation Directorate

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Author: MoWE
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy
Institution:

This Self Supply Acceleration Manual deals with a matter that is very close and important to achieve the target set by the Government of Ethiopia in its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP). In the GTP target, the Government has placed considerable emphasis on the delivery of clean water to the people of Ethiopia. During the first three years period of the GTP (2003-2005E.C), over 22.2 Million people across the country were able to get access to clean water. This has significant developmental impact in improving their life in general and that of women and children in particular.

Optimising Road Development for Groundwater Recharge and Retention Final Workshop

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Author: Meta Meta Research / Mekelle University
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Meta Meta Research
Institution:

This is one of the 15 UPGro Catalyst Projects. This one looked at ways at which roads can be used to improve groundwater recharge in Ethiopia. Below are the presentations from the final project workshop which from this exciting project.

There are also links to some the final reports (filed separately).

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

How to Make Water Wise Roads

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Author: Steenbergen, F. van, K. Woldearegay, H.M. van Beusekom, D. Garcia Landarte, and M. Al-Abyadh
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IFAD
Institution: Meta Meta, UPGro, RAIN

This note may serve as guideline on how to combine roads and water harvesting. The investment in roads in almost any country far exceeds that in local water management or watershed protection. Hence roads offer one of the largest opportunities to secure local water supplies, if done wisely and in an integrated way. This document describes both the governance and proceses to combine road development with water management as well as how recharge, retention and reuse (3R) of water can be enhanced through improved designs.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Optimizing Intensified Runoff from Roads for Supplemental Irrigation: Tigray Region, Ethiopia UNESCO-IHE MSc Thesis

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Author: Teweldebrihan M. D.
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNESCO-IHE
Institution:

From the UPGro Catalyst Project "Optimising Road Development for Groundwater Recharge and Retention"

This research has demonstrated that the road in the study area is having significant negative impact to the agricultural livelihoods, but that also it has a huge potential to be a key contributor to the enhancement of the livelihoods. The three major recommendations are :( 1) for the betterment of the impacts, it is suggested that Roads for water harvesting and multiple uses be mainstreamed in educational systems (2) There should be integration between relevant institutions and authorities (ERA, MoA as well as regional and zonal line offices) in making future road development plans. And (3) Awareness generation should be done to encourage farmers utilize the runoff from roads for productive purposes. Moreover, technical assistance and training's needs to be delivered at grass-root level.

Where does the water flow? Roads runoff, soil erosion, groundwater, livelihoods and poverty alleviation in Tigray, Ethiopia

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Author: Welle, K., R. Alba, J. Demenge, A. Addisu and K. Manjur
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Development Studies, University of Mekelle, Meta Meta Research
Institution:

The study is part of the UpGro project. Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor (UPGro). Based on fieldwork conducted in 2014 in the semi‐arid region of Tigray, Ethiopia, this report explores the physical and socio‐economic impacts of road related surface and groundwater flows – and how people cope with and adapt to them. We argue that two distinctive objectives of improving road connectivity and improving water availability for irrigation – are linked and could be served by the same infrastructure, which we call multifunctional roads.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Water for Wajir Decision modeling for the Habaswein-Wajir Water Supply Project in Northern Kenya

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Author: Luedeling, E. and J. De Leeuw
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: World Agroforestry Centre
Institution:

Project Report from the ARIGA UPGro Catalyst Study

The city of Wajir in Northern Kenya, the capital of the county of the same name, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades. The city has so far never had a reliable supply of clean drinking water or a sanitation system. To improve the situation, plans are currently considered to construct a water pipeline from Habaswein, another locale in Wajir County that is about 110 km away.

Regarding project design, two issues emerged as important. Poor project design was identified as one of the major risks to project success. Furthermore, activities to build consensus around the intervention and ensure that all stakeholders approve of the intervention is critical. Payments for Environmental Services were included in the model, but other benefit-sharing mechanisms, as well as awareness-raising measures, should also be explored.

Supply chain analysis of handpumps and spare parts in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo UNICEF Contract 43147804

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Author: Koestler, A.G., J. Kahorha, L. Biteete
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: UNICEF
Institution: A-Aqua AS

This study is seen as an extension of a study carried out in 2009 by UNICEF, which mapped the handpumps and spare parts market in Africa as a whole. The study found that although large numbers of handpumps are sold in Africa each year, availability of spare parts at community level is still a great challenge. In addition, supply chains for handpumps and spare parts are normally separated, and there are challenges with availability, affordability as well as sufficient community structures to ensure demand.

DISCLAIMER: This is a non-RWSN publication and endorsement by RWSN or any of its member organisations should not be inferred.

Guidelines for Developing a Self Supply Acceleration Plan for your Area

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Author: Butterworth, J. Adank, M., Bakker-Kruijne E., Mekonta L. and I. Klaassen
Year of Publishing: 2014
Publisher: IRC
Institution:

Who will use these guidelines?
If you are working to improve access to safe rural water supply at woreda, zonal and/ or regional levels, or are involved in any aspect of water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, irrigation, access to water for livelihoods, etc., then these guidelines are for you.
You may be a government official in water, health, agriculture or finance; or you may be within a non-governmental organisation (NGO), donor agency, training institution or the private sector.

What is the objective of these guidelines?
These guidelines will support you to develop a Self-supply acceleration plan for your woreda, zone or region.

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