Even before Zimbabwe’s National Upgraded Well Programme began in the late 1980’s, one million people drew their water daily from both communal and family owned shallow wells. The number of families owning some sort of well or water hole in their back yard or vegetable garden was estimated at 100 000 at that time. Thus the shallow well concept was well established as a source of water in the rural areas of Zimbabwe.
Whilst some of these wells were adequately protected, most were either unprotected or poorly protected and had the tendency to become heavily contaminated. This was partly because of rainwater run-off but also due to contaminated buckets and ropes laying in unhygienic conditions at the well head, on the ground, and being reintroduced into the well. Many were dangerous, especially for children, because they were poorly lined, if at all, and had little or no protection at the well head. Possibly because they were regarded more as a threat to health than a benefit, these family owned back yard wells did not appear on any inventory of rural water sources, and were not regarded seriously by Government or other organisations at the start of the national rural water supply programme which began in 1980 with the help of external donor support. And yet in some areas over 30% of the population use shallow wells on a daily basis. The National Master Plan for rural water development, written in the early 1980’s mentioned them only in passing. The emphasis at that time, was to serve the rural people with a communally based hand pump supply. | »
This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Fairwater BluePump, an emerging rural water supply technology in sub-Saharan Africa. Claims about the BluePump’s durability and minimal maintenance requirements have provoked significant interest within the rural water sector. This evaluation set out to assess the suitability of the BluePump as a rural water supply technology, taking into account its operational performance, the experiences of water users, the views of local stakeholders, and the broader contextual factors that impinge upon its sustainability. | »
This review was commissioned by UNICEF to snapshot the current effectiveness of procurement and field processes related to the drilling, the role of the district councils in these implementation processes and indeed the quality of the finished water point products. This with an objective of identifying weaknesses and remedying them in future programmes. | »
Lessons from the Mozambique
Improving water supply in rural areas of Mozambique continues to be a major challenge. The highly dispersed rural population and difficult hydrogeology make even the most basic level of service--a borehole with a hand pump—accessible to only about half of the rural population. Even when basic access is available, 17.1 percent
of hand pumps are out of service at any one time, rising to nearly 30 percent in the Northern provinces.
With the support of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), water drillers in Mozambique began tackling this challenge through the creation of the Mozambique Drilling Association (APM). As the first of its kind, the association introduced several key initiatives to boost the capacity of drillers and to strengthen their voice to the government. The purpose of this learning note is to share lessons learned from WSP’s support to APM and to highlight additional areas of growth and development for the association. | »
There has been encouraging progress with access to safe drinking water and sanitation in both rural and urban areas since the United Nations Water Decade of the 1980s. However, more than 1 billion people around the world still lack access to safe water supplies and more than 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. A substantial majority of these people live in Asia where the lack of sanitation provision is particularly acute. In Africa, over one third of the population still remains without access to safe water and sanitation, and many of these can only be served by groundwater. The need for renewed efforts to improve the situation is recognised in DFID's recently published water strategy paper - ''Addressing the Water Crisis - Healthier and More Productive Lives for Poor People''.
These guidelines are an important contribution to risk assessment and the avoidance of the contamination of groundwater supplies from on-site sanitation. They have been development as part of a project funded by DFID through the water component of the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division's Knowledge and Research Programme. | »